Major themes of A&P Chapter 1

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melissa91383
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235456
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Major themes of A&P Chapter 1
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2013-09-17 21:47:02
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Anatomy physiology
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Chapter 1
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  1. Anatomy
    The study of structures and the physical relationship between body parts.
  2. Inspection/observation
    Simplest way to study human anatomy
  3. Cadaver dissection
    Cutting and separation of organs to study their relationships
  4. Comparative anatomy
    Study of more than one species to analyze evolutionary trends
  5. Palpation
    Feeling structures with fingertips (taking pulse, feeling swollen lymph nodes)
  6. Auscultation
    Listening to the natural sounds made by the body (heart & lung sounds)
  7. Percussion
    Examiner taps on the body and listens to the sound for signs of abnormalities (pockets of air)
  8. Gross anatomy
    Visible with the naked eye
  9. Cytology
    Study of individual cells with a microscope
  10. Hystology
    Study of tissue with a microscope
  11. Physiology
    Study of how living organisms perform vital functions
  12. What is the level of structural organization
    • Molecules
    • cells
    • tissues
    • organs
    • organ systems
    • organisms
  13. Molecules
    Are composed of atoms, large molecules are called macromolecules
  14. Cells
    Organelles are microscopic structures in a cell that carry out their individual functions
  15. What are tissues composed of?
    Cells
  16. What are organs composed of?
    Tissues
  17. What are organ systems composed of?
    Organs
  18. Characteristics of life are?
    • Organiztion
    • cellular composition
    • metabolism
    • excretion
    • responsiveness
    • movement
    • homeostasis
    • development
    • reproduction
    • evolution
  19. What is cellular composition
    Living matter is always compartmentslized into one or more cells
  20. Metabolism
    The sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body and it can be divided into two parts
  21. Catabolism
    The breakdown of large complex molecules into simpler ones
  22. Anabolism
    Uses the energy from catabolism for body structure and function
  23. Excretion
    The separation of wastes from the tissues and their elimination
  24. Responsiveness
    Responding to change in their enviroment
  25. What are the two ways development comes in
    • Differentiation
    • growth
  26. Differentiaton
    Unspecialized cells develop into specialized (ex-RBC, WBC, from same ancestor)
  27. Growth
    Increase in size
  28. Evolution
    All living species exhibit genetic change from generation to generation and therefore evolve
  29. Homeostasis
    Steady state condition allows the normal body to keep in balance by compensation with change
  30. Regulation
    Homeostasis regulation usually involves a receptor sensitive to a particular stimulus and an effect or whose activity has and effect on the same stimulus
  31. Negative feedback loop
    A variation outside of normal limits triggers an automatic response that corrects the situation.

    when the body senses a change and activates mechanisms to reverse it
  32. What di an example of negative feedback loop?
    Fasting sugar level when eats a box of doughnuts it goes up.  Signal goes to pancreas then level goes down.
  33. What is the structure of the feedback loop?
    • Receptor
    • integrator
    • effector
  34. Receptor
    Senses change
  35. Integrator
    Control center that repsonds
  36. Effector
    Structures that restore homeostatsis
  37. Positive feedback loop
    The initial stimulus produces a response that exaggerates the stimulus.

    self amplifying change-leads to change in the same direction
  38. What is an example of positive feedback?
    Childbirth when you have contractions (it goes in the same direction)
  39. What is an bad example of positive feedback loop?
    • High temperature
    • increase metabolic rate
    • the cycle continues to reinforce heat
    • becomes fatal at 113* F

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