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What is a value?
A belief about the worth of something, about what matters, that acts as a standard to guide one's behavior
What is a value system?
organization of values in which each is ranked in a continuum of importance, often leading to a personal code of conduct.
What are the 5 common modes of value transmission?
- Rewarding and Punishing
- Responsible choice
What is the modeling mode of value transmission?
learning by observing others
What is the moralizing mode of value transmission?
Being taught a comlpete value system with little opportunity to weigh different values
What is the Laissez-faire mode of value transmission?
presenting no one set of values taught as best
What is the rewarding and punishment mode of value transmission?
rewarded for demonstrating desirable values, punished for demonstrating undesirable values
What is the responsible choice mode of value transmission?
encouraging the exploration of compteting values and to weigh their consequences while providing guidance
What are the 5 values essential to nursing?
- Human dignity
- Social Justice
What is nursing altruism?
concern for the welfare and well- being of others
What is nursing Autonomy?
right to self-determination. respecting patients decisions.
What is human dignity as it applies to nursing?
respect for the inherent worth and uniqueness of individuals and communities
What is nursing integrity?
acting in accordance to an appropriate code of ethics and accepted standards
What is social justice as it applies to nursing?
upholding moral, legal and humanistic principles.
What is value clarification?
a process by which people come to understand their own values and value systems
What are the 3 main activities of value clarification?
What happens during the Choosing phase of value clarification?
1. Freely choosing 2. from alternatives 3. after consideration of the consequences
What happens during the Prizing phase of value clarification?
stating goal 1. with pride and happiness and 2. with public affirmation.
What happens during the Acting phase of value clarification?
patient 1. incorporates the choice into their behavior 2. with consistancy and regularity
what is ethics?
systematic inquiry into principles of right and wrong, virtue and vice, and good and evil as they relate to human conduct and flourishing.
What are morals?
personal or communal standards of right or wrong
What are clinical ethics?
Ethical problems "at the bedside"
What are nursing ethics?
ethical issues that arise in the practice of nursing and of the analysis used by nurses to make ethical judgements
What is the utilitarian theory of ethics?
rightness or wrongness depends on the consequences of the action
What is the deontologic theory of ethics?
action is right or wrong independent of the consequences.
What are the 5 principles to the principle-based approach to bioethics?
What is Nonmaleficence?
Seek not to inflict harm. prevent harm or risk of harm whenever possible.
What is beneficence?
- actively promoting a patients benefit individually.
- balance benfits against risk and harm
What is fidelity?
What is an ethical dillemma?
When attempted adherence to basic ethical principles results in conflicting courses of action
What is the care-based approach to bioethics?
directs attention to specific situations of individual patients veiwed within the context of their life narrative
What is ethical agency?
Doing the right thing because it is the right thing to do. behavior that must be cultivated.
What are the 7 essential elements of ethical agency?
- Ethical Sensibility
- Ethical Responsiveness
- Ethical Reasoning and Discernment
- Ethical Accountability
- Ethical Character
- Ethical Valuing
- Transformative Ethical Leadership
What is ethical sensibility?
ability to recognize when ethical challanges are present.
What is ethical responsiveness?
Ability and willingness to respond to the ethical challange.
What is ethical reasoning and discernment?
knowledge of and ability to use sound theoretical and practical approaches to "thinking through" ethical challanges
What is ethical accountability?
ability and willingness to accept responsibility for one's ethical behavior and to learn from the experience
What is ethical character?
cultivated dispositions that allow one to act as one believes one ought to act
What is ethical valuing?
valuing ethical behavior
What is transformative ethical leadership?
commitment and ability to create an environment of ethical agency
What is ethical distress?
When the RN knows the right thing to do but either personal or institutional factorsmake it difficult to follow the right course of action
What are the steps in using nursing practice to make ethical decisions?
- Assess the situation (gather data)
- Diagnose(identify) the problem
- Implement your decision
- Evaluate your decision
What is advocacy?
the protection and support of another's rights