ARCH 270 Pre-Midterm

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ARCH 270 Pre-Midterm
2013-10-14 01:37:34
Arch 270

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  1. Traditional Thought in Middle Ages
    • -James Ussher and John Lightfoot, believed creation occurred on October 23 4004BC at 9am, because that is the date Cambridge began session
    • -fixity of species(earth was full, no new room for species)
    • -theory of irreducible complexity in nature(watchmaker analogy)
    • -teleology-design and purpose in natural phenomena
  2. Copernicus
    -re introduced concept of heliocentric solar system (sun centred) versus geocentric (earth centred)
  3. Catastrophism
    -young earth theory that believed natural disasters created all the geological phenomenon in the world (mountains, rivers, canyons etc)
  4. Uniformitarianism
    • -belief that the world was old and features on it came about over many many years
    • -proposed by Georges Buffon and proven by Charles Lyell
  5. John Ray
    • -creationist
    • -classified plants according to genus and species
    • -strict adherence to fixity of species
  6. Carolus Linnaeus
    • -creationist
    • -first guy to classify humans with apes
    • -provided basis for modern two naming taxonomy 
    • -very racist in classifying humans
  7. Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck
    • -use-disuse theory of evolution
    • -believed they evolved by teleology(innate driving force of change)
  8. Charles Darwin
    • -gentleman companion on HMS Beagle for 5 years(supposed to be 4)
    • -recorded hundreds of species and eventually published on natural selection 
    • -origin of species
  9. Alfred Russel Wallace
    • -independently came up with natural selection with samples from the amazon
    • -lost much of his work in a shipwreck
    • -catalyzed Darwin to publish his work
  10. Myth
    • -story involving the supernatural to explain some aspect of nature
    • -based on faith (creation myths)
  11. Aristotle
    • -pioneered scientific method(logic and reason)
    • -introduced "ladder of life" Scala Naturae a hierarchy of all living things
  12. Antipodes
    -monstrous races that existed on the periphery of the world, or on the bottom of it
  13. Greco-Roman Time Concept
    • -cyclical time concept
    • -five ages
    • -Gold, Silver, Bronze, Age of Heroes, Iron Age(current age they were in)
    • -Gold was perfect, progressively worse after that
  14. Scientific Method
    • -observation, hypothesis, experimentation 
    • -theory is thought of as law (gravity)
  15. Piltdown Hoax
    • -discovered in Sussex England in 1911
    • -Charles Dawson
    • -human like brain vault, but ape like jaw and teeth
    • -thought to be missing link between humans and apes
    • -likely racially/nationally motivated, Germany had the neander valley, France had Cro-Magnon
    • -revealed in 1953 to be fake
  16. Big Bang Theory
    • -universe formed 13.7 BYA
    • -began from a singularity
    • -as universe cooled matter was condensed from energy
  17. Earth Origins
    • -solar system formed 5 BYA
    • -Earth formed 4.5BYA
    • -early atmosphere was reducing atmosphere leading to carbon based molecules 4BYA
  18. Origins of Life
    • -abiogenesis-the generation of life from non living matter
    • -extraterrestrial abiogenesis-life came to earth from an asteroid (exogenesis)
    • -prokaryotes 3.6 BYA
    • -eukaryotes 2BYA
    • -evidence of oxygen atmosphere 2.7BYA
    • -sexual reproduction 1BYA, led to dramatic increase in biodiversity
  19. Aristotelian Abiogenesis
    • -spontaneous generation of complex life forms
    • -believed mice came from piles of straw
    • -very wrong theory
  20. Palaeozoic Era
    • -cambrain explosion-570-490MYA most major groups of animals appear in fossil record
    • -exoskeletons
    • -vertebrates
    • -fish 
    • -insects
    • -land plants
    • -at end of this era (Permian Period) largest mass extinction in history of earth occurred, 90-95% of marine species went extinct
  21. Mesozoic Era
    • -248-65MYA
    • -age of dinosaurs 
    • -first birds
    • -gymnosperms and angiosperms(seed plants)
    • -pangea breaks up
  22. Evolution of Mammals
    • -250MYA mammal like reptiles appear
    • -200MYA mouse like mammals, overshadowed by dinosaurs
    • -70MYA first placental mammals
  23. Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction
    • -second largest extinction, 85% of all species
    • -asteroid hypothesis in Yucatan Peninsula(mexico)
    • -180km crater
  24. Primate Evolution
    • -65MYA plesiadapiforms- archaic group of primates
    • -55MYA first true primates, resembling prosimians(prehensile hands/feet, tooth comb, forward facing eyes, bony orbits, larger brains)
  25. Primate Evolution
    • -Oligocene-38-25MYA-first anthropoids, larger brain, reduced snout, dry nose, tree adaptations
    • -Miocene-25-5MYA-first hominoids, larger brains, further reduced snout, some terrestrial adaptations
  26. Human Evolution
    • -late Miocene-7-5MYA- appearance of first hominids(family including all bipedal apes)
    • -moved from forrest to savanna
    • -late Pliocene-2.5MYA-larger brained hominids using stone tools
    • -early pleistocene-1.5MAY-moved from Africa into Asia and Europe
  27. Gregor Mendel
    • -monk who discovered laws of inheritance through study of garden peas 7 different traits
    • -principle of segregation-genes occur in pairs and separate during gamete production
  28. Epigenetics
    • -genetic regulation from mechanisms outside the DNA sequence
    • -genome responds to environmental factors 
    • -some changes shown to be heritable
  29. Polygenic
    • -phenotypic trait influenced by genes at two or more loci
    • -skin color, height
  30. Pleitropic
    • -several seemingly unrelated phenotypic traits all influenced by actions of single gene
    • -sickle cell anemia
  31. Co-dominance
    -expression of two alleles in heterozygotes, neither is dominant or recessive, both are expressed ABO blood types
  32. Microevolution
    -changes in allele frequency from generation to generation
  33. Macroevolution
    -long term patterns of genetic change(speciation)
  34. Deme
    • -breeding population
    • -group of organisms that show genetic isolation from other populations of same species
  35. Non-random Mating
    • -unintentional-geographic proximity(ease)
    • -intentional-assortative or preferential mating
  36. Positive Assortative Mating
    -individuals of like genotype mate more than predicted, leads to increase in homozygosity
  37. Negative Assortative Mating
    -individuals of like genotype mate less than expected, leads to increase in heterozygosity
  38. Inbreeding
    • -consanguineous mating
    • -mating between closely related individuals
    • -results in extreme homozygosity
    • -most animals avoid
  39. Mutation
    • -evolutionary mechanism
    • -random change in genetic code
    • -accident or result of outside stimuli
    • -source of all genetic variation
  40. Natural Selection
    -evolutionary mechanism based on relative reproductive success
  41. Gene Flow
    • -migration-mechanism of movement of genes from one population to another
    • -causes allele frequencies among populations to become more similar
    • -introduces new variation into populations
    • -europeans to canada
  42. Genetic Drift
    • -evolutionary mechanism 
    • -fission-split of pop into sub-pops
    • -founder effect
    • -bottleneck-when most of a population is eliminated
  43. Allopatric Speciation
    -geographic isolation blocks gene flow(Canada before Europeans)
  44. Sympatric Speciation
    • -reproduction isolation of a population by choice
    • -amish people
  45. Anagenesis
    -transformation of a species in an unbranched fashion toward new species(chronospecies)
  46. Cladogenesis
    • -budding off of new species from parent species that continues on
    • -favours biological diversity
  47. Fossil
    • -the preserved remains of a once living organism
    • -NOT synonymous with mineralization
  48. Taphonomy
    • -study of postmortem processes affecting organic remains
    • -study of the conditions affecting preservation
    • -intrinsic factors:bone shape, size, age at death, disease, nutritional status
    • -extrinsic factors: biotic(body stuff), abiotic(environmental stuff)
    • -extrinsic cultural factors: food prep, waste disposal, body disposal methods
  49. Relative Dating
    • -comparative methods providing estimates, older than this, but newer than this etc
    • -stratigraphy- using the arrangement of rock and sediment layers, must be undisturbed
  50. Chronometric Dating
    -provide specific dates of age
  51. Morphological Dating
    -using form and structure to determine age
  52. Seriation
    • -using sequence of changing styles to determine age
    • -ex: iPhones
  53. Radiocarbon Dating
    • -based on decay of C14 into mitrogen
    • -uses half life theory
    • -must use organic material 
    • -destructive process 
    • -limited to about 50,000 years
    • -must be calibrated because of recent isotope releases
  54. Potassium/Argon Dating
    • -decay of K into Ar
    • -long half life of 1.31 billion years
    • -used to date from 100K-3BYA
  55. Paleomagnetic Dating
    -method of dating sites based on reversal of earth's poles in sedimentary rock
  56. Dendrochronology
    • -tree ring dating
    • -very accurate
    • -requires master sequence
  57. Taxonomy
    -classification of organisms in an ordered system that indicates natural relationships
  58. Analogous Trait
    • -sharing the same function but no common evolutionary descent
    • -aka homoplasies
    • -can be parallel evolution: independent evolution of traits in closely related species
    • -convergent evolution: independent evolution of similar traits in separate evolutionary lines (birds and insect wings)
  59. Homologous Traits
    -sharing the same evolutionary source
  60. Primitive/Ancestral Traits
    • -traits that have not changed since the ancestral state 
    • -ex: five digits on tetrapod limbs
  61. Derived or Modified Traits
    • -traits that have changed since ancestral traits
    • -ex:single digit on horse foot used to be three
  62. Species
    -group of related organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
  63. Adaptive Radiation
    -diversification of an ancestral group of organisms into new niche adapted forms
  64. Endemic
    -refers to a characteristic or feature that is natural to a given population or environment
  65. Nonhoning Canine
    • -an upper canine that as part of a nonhoning chewing mechanism is not sharpened against the lower third premolar 
    • -one of the six ways humans differ from apes
  66. Dietary Plasticity
    • -diet's flexibility in adapting to a given environment
    • -ie. primates eat a lot of different foods
  67. Precision vs. Power Grip
    • -power grip is a fist like grip around an object
    • -precision grip is where the tips of the fingers and thumb come together enabling fine manipulation
  68. Dental Formula Order
    • ex. 3143
    • -3 incisors, 1 canine. 4 premolars and 3 molars
    • -only gives one quadrant of dentition
  69. Bilophodont
    -means the lower molars in old world monkeys have two ridges
  70. loph
    -enamel ridge connecting cusps on a tooth's surface
  71. Y-5
    • -hominoid pattern of lower molar cusps
    • -fork of the Y is directed towards the outside of the tooth
  72. Tooth Comb
    -anterior teeth(canines and incisors) that have been tilted forward, creating a scraper
  73. Diastema
    • -a space between two teeth
    • -usually part of a canine-premolar honing complex where the canine fits into the diastema and is continually sharpened against the lower third premolar
  74. Sectorial Premolar
    -premolar with a dominant cusp adapted for cutting
  75. Olfactory Bulb
    -portion of the anterior brain that detects odours
  76. Primitive Characteristics
    -traits present in multiple species of a group
  77. Derived Characteristic
    -trait present in only one or a few species of a group
  78. Kinds of Prosimians
    -lorises, galagos, tarsiers and lemurs
  79. Kinds of Anthropoids
    -monkeys, apes, and humans
  80. Polygynous
    • -social group with one male, several adult females and their offspring
    • -eg. howler monkeys and some langurs
  81. Polyandrous
    • -social group with one reproductively active female, several adult males and their offspring
    • -eg. some rare new world monkeys
  82. Infanticide
    -the killing of a juvenile, usually by a new male in a one male-multi female social group
  83. Altruistic
    • -refers to behaviour that is for the betterment of others and detrimental to oneself 
    • -eg. adult male baboons giving warning calls to other baboons as a predator approaches
  84. Prosimians
    • -rely on highly developed sense of smell 
    • -large nasal passages
    • -rhinarium
    • -scent glands
    • -distinctive olfactory bulb
  85. Miss Waldron's Red Colobus Monkey
    • -story about the decline of populations and habitats of primates worldwide 
    • -poaching to food etc they are hunted directly and indirectly
  86. Order of Vertebrae from Skull to Tail
    -cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, caudal
  87. Linnaean Taxonomy
    -classification based only on physical features, not evolutionary relationships
  88. Evolutionary Taxonomy
    • -classification based on both physical similarities and evolutionary descent
    • -considers all primitive and derived traits
    • -what the textbook/we use
  89. Cladistic Taxonomy
    • -classification based only on the pattern of descent
    • -considers only homologous traits that are derived and shared regardless of how species looks
    • -lab manual
  90. Mammalian Evolution
    • -300-250mya appearance of mammal like reptiles
    • -200mya first true mammals (small mouse like)
    • -70mya first placental mammals
    • -65mya mammals replace reptiles as dominant land vertebrates
  91. Mammalian Reproduction
    • -placental-nourishes and protects fetus, high energy cost
    • -monotremes-egg laying 
    • -marsupials-fetus is nourished in the sack (kangaroo)
  92. Mammalian Dentition
    • -spatula shaped incisors(cutting, slicing)
    • -pointed canines(piercing, tearing)
    • -large surface area molars and premolars
  93. Diphyodont
    • -two generations of teeth
    • -deciduous and permanent
  94. Heterodontic
    • -mammals possess more than one kind of teeth
    • -versus homodontic
  95. 6 Mammalian Specific Traits
    • -sweat glands
    • -hair (at one point in life)
    • -three middle ear ossicles 
    • -mandible with one bone on each side
    • -left curving aorta 
    • -thoracic diaphragm
  96. Primates (classification)
    • -kingdom: Animalia
    • -phylum: chordata
    • -subphylum: vertebrata 
    • -class: mammalia 
    • -subclass: eutheria 
    • -order: primates
  97. Primate Senses
    • -enlarged eyes sensitive to low light
    • -complete bony orbits (postorbital bar or septum)
    • -many have color vision
    • -loss of naked rhinarium in most
  98. Primate Hands and Feet
    • -pentadactyly- ancestral trait of five digits
    • -nails instead of claws
    • -opposable
  99. Primate Locomotion
    • -terrestrial quadrupedalism 
    • -arboreal quadrupedalism
    • -vertical clinging and leaping
    • -brachiation
    • -bipedalism
  100. 5 Primate Social Structures
    • -solitary group
    • -monogamous family group
    • -polyandrous group(with one female and multiple males)
    • -unimale group
    • -multi male multi female group
  101. Dental Terminology
    • -mesial=towards front
    • -distal=towards back
    • -maxillary=top teeth
    • -mandibular=bottom teeth
    • -buccal=cheek side
    • -lingual=tongue side
  102. "iformes"
  103. "oidea"
  104. "idae"
  105. Maxilla Ancestral Molars
    • -tribosphenic-three cusps arranged in a triangle interlocking in a zig zag pattern for shearing
    • -maxilla has a trigon
    • -paracone=MB
    • -metacone=DB
    • -protocone=L
    • -in primates has the addition of the hypocone
    • -hypocone=DL
  106. Mandible Ancestral Molar
    • -tribosphenic-three cusps arranged in a triangle interlocking in a zig zag pattern for shearing
    • -can be trigonid or talonid
  107. Trigonid
    • -mandible ancestral molar pattern
    • -paraconid=ML
    • -protoconid=MB
    • -metaconid=L
    • -in primates you lose the paraconid and get hypoconid, entoconid and hypoconulid
    • -hypoconid=DB
    • -entoconid=DL
    • -hypoconulid=D and slightly B(variable)
  108. Talonid
    • -mandible ancestral molar pattern
    • -entoconid=DL
    • -hypoconid=DB
    • =hypoconulid=D-variable