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What is a specific population?
A group of people who have similar health needs and can be grouped together when targeting health prevention.
Able to reach, use and a service or product.
List 5 barriers to accessing a health product or service.
- Can't afford it
- Can't get to it (transport)
- It's not open when you need it
- Don't understand what to do (language or health literacy)
- service is confusing to use
List 5 advocacy strategies.
- Influencing policy
- Mobilising groups
Active support of an idea or cause. Standing up for people who cannot stand up for themselves.
What is an argument?
A discussion to justify a position. How you explain your conclusions.
To insist on your rights being heard while being respectful and considerate.
Define a barrier in health promotion.
A challenge. Something that prevents success.
Anything that produces results that differ from the truth eg presenting one side of an argument or leading people to agree with you.
What is Chronic disease and give an example.
- A disease that builds up over time (non-communicable, not infectious). Also take a long time to treat or recover.
- Eg, Diabetes, obesity or cancer.
What does coping mean?
Cognitive and behavioural strategies to cope with everyday living and stressful situations.
What is Cultural identity?
Belonging to a particular group. Identifying yourself as part of a particular culture or ethnicity.
What are cultural factors?
- Social behaviours
what are natural disasters?
What is the ecological framework?
A conceptual model that shows how health is affect by a range of factors such as relationships, community and society.
What is the process of enabling?
Helping someone to gain the skills and resources to achieve something. Increasing strength of people or groups to act on their own behalf.
What is epidemiology?
Measures of health status such as life expectancy, incidence and prevalence of disease, mortality, morbidity.
What is incidence of disease?
The number of new cases of a disease in a population.
What is prevalence of disease?
The total number of cases of a disease in a population.
What does reform mean?
Change to make it better. Improvements to a system.
Give 3 examples of health care system reforms.
- Pharmaceutical benefit scheme
- Public screening and immunisation
- Private health insurance rebate
Define health inequities.
Avoidable, unfair inequalities between groups.
What is lobbying?
A form of advocacy that aims to change policy or legislation. Could include writing letter or producing petitions.
What is Mediation?
Using a third party to resolve differences.
What are the Millennium Development Goals
eight international goals for developing countries to improve health and development by 2015.
What three MDG's are specifically aimed toward health?
- MDG 4 - Reduce child mortality
- MDG 5 - Improve maternal health
- MDG 6 - Combat HIV, malaria and other diseases
What are norms?
- Unwritten rules that guide behaviour.
- Common beliefs, attitudes and values among a group.
Define public health advocacy.
Overcoming major stuctural barriers to health (not individuals or small groups) such as laws, health systems.
Define qualitative measures for health status.
Measures based on quality of living eg social determinants.
Define quantitative measures for health status.
Measures using data and numbers eg life expectancy.
What is social justice?
Protecting the rights of all people in a community or population. Making things equitable for all people (not necessarily equal).
What is a social network?
A set of links between individuals in a population. How information flows from one person to another.
Define socioeconomic status
An economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family’s economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.
How does socioeconomic status effect health?
low income and little education have shown to be strong predictors of a range of physical and mental health problems. This may be due to environmental conditions or a person's social predicament.
What are the levels of Maslow's hierarchy?
- Basic / Physiological
- Self Actualisation
Why does Maslow say the levels should be achieved in order?
Because people are not motivated to move up the levels until they have the lower levels satisfied.