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What is a biome?
- A major division of the terrestrial environment distinguished by the predominant plant growth form and associated with a particular climate
- Biomes disregard species composition
What is solar radiation?
Atmosphere molecules absorb sunlight
Describe Hadley cells.
- Warm air rises and cools, dropping rain
- Cool air is pushed towards the pulls
- Dense, dry air descends, and absorbs moisture
- There are three circulation cells in both hemispheres
- Ecology is the study of all the complex interrelations referred to by Darwin as the conditions for the struggle for existence
- Oikos (Home)
- -Ology (Study of)
- Defined by Ernst Haeckel 1866
Describe the Rain Shadow effect.
- Moisture-laden air blows onshore from Pacific Ocean (west)
- Air rises over mountains, cools, and rain falls
- On the East side dry air creates dessert conditions (This side is in rain shadow)
What factors are important for aquatic systems?
- Salt vs Fresh water
Describe Intertidal Zone.
- Where you swim
- Adapted to surf attachment structures
- Able to deal with desiccation
Describe Neritic Zone
- Tropics - Coral reefs, warm water,
- Temperate regions - Kelp Forests, cold water, Sea Otters
- Where you scuba dive
Describe Oceanic Zone.
- No structure
- Most life is near surface
- Contains Phytoplankton, Nekton
- Fascinating bottom dwellers
Where is the Benthic Zone?
- Sea bed
- Contains decomposing organisms on floor
Where is the Photic Zone?
Thin zone over the top where light can still be seen through
Where is the Aphotic Zone?
Deep where light can no longer be seen from the surface
What is an Estuary?
- Where freshwater meets saltwater
- Variable salinity with tides and rainfall
- Rich in nutrients
- Salt tolerant vegetation
- Often bordered by coastal wetlands
What are nurseries?
- Located in estuaries
- Fish swim in, lay eggs, and swim out for protection
- Oysters, crabs, and many fish
What are the two freshwater systems?
- Flowing systems (Rivers) - Lotic
- Sitting systems (Lakes) - Lentic
What are the lake zones?
- Littoral - Close to shore: Macrophytes, snails, crayfish, insects, amphibians and small fish
- Limnetic - Away from shore: Primary production of phytoplankton, Larger fish
What are the differences between headwater streams and large rivers?
- Increase temperature
- Decrease flow (gradient)
- Differences in bed make up (Rocky vs Silt)
Answers the "How" question
Answers the "Why"
What is fixed action pattern (FAP)?
- Innate behavior
- Ex. Once a goose decides to do something it has to do that before anything else
- Most behavior is Flexible and conditional dependent not like FAP
Behavior is often a mix of ____ and _____?
innate and learned