Neurology (Nerve Cells)

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Author:
juliemarie
ID:
235574
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Neurology (Nerve Cells)
Updated:
2013-09-29 11:29:21
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Brain Neurons SLP
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Brief overview of Nerve Cells of the brain
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  1. There are two main types of cells in the nervous system:
    • 1. Neurons
    • 2. Glial Cells
  2. Gross anatomy of the neuron:

    • 1. cell body
    • 2. Dendrites
    • 3. Axon
  3. Glial Cell function:
    Perform mechanical support functions for neurons (provides metabolic, electrical, and mechanical support)
  4. Neurons can be classified by:
    Function or Structure
  5. The three types of neurons (as classified by function):
    • 1. Sensory
    • 2. Interneuron (association or connection)
    • 3. Motor
  6. Sensory Neuron
    Detects stimuli and transmits to CNS (acts as a receiver)
  7. Interneuron
    only found in the CNS, these neurons collect information from sensory neurons, process the information, then decide whether or not to transmit (these make up 90% of the neurons in the CNS)
  8. Motor Neuron
    Sends signals to muscles or glands to carry out functions
  9. Three types of neurons (classified by structure)
    • 1. Multipolar
    • 2. Bipolar
    • 3. Unipolar
  10. Multipolar Nueron
    • 1. 1 axon, many dendrites
    • 2. motor + interneurons
    • 3. found in ventral horn and cerebellum
  11. Bipolar Neuron
    • 1. 1 axon, 1 dendrite 
    • 2. only found in special senses
  12. Unipolar
    • 1. 1 short process from soma which branches into two axons
    • 2. sensory (skin and organs)
  13. Nueronal Membrane
    • 1. Serves as a barrier
    • 2. Has embedded channels that serve as a gateway into the nueron
    • 3. membrane has lipid bilayer
  14. 1. The Cell Body controls _______ _________
    2. Gross anatomy (2 parts)
    • 1. metabolic processes (cellular activity)
    • 2. Nucleus: nucleolus and chromosomes-DNA blueprint 
    • 3. Cytoplasm: Cystosol (fluid) and organelles (membrane enclosed structures)
  15. Organelles (5 important)
    • 1. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • 2. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • 3. Golgi Apparatus
    • 4. Mitochondria
    • 5. Cytoskeleton
  16. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Contains ribosomes, which are the place of protein synthesis (protein synthesis acts in determining the function of the neuron)
  17. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Doesn't not have ribosomes, so there is no protein synthesis. It has various functions, like calcium regulation of the neuron.
  18. Golgi Apparatus
    • 1. Receives proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum, wraps and sorts these proteins for delivery to axon or dendrites 
    • 2. Produces lysosomes to eliminate waste
  19. Mitochondria
    This is the power house of the cell, it turns oxygen and glucose into energy (ATP).
  20. Cystoskeleton
    Network of protein fibers that maintains the shape of the cell (microtubules - transport), (neurofilaments - attachment)
  21. Axons
    • 1. Specialize in transmitting information
    • 2. Important features: axon hillock (site of action potential), the axon collateral, and terminal arbor (where it branches into axon terminals
  22. Speed of transmission (based on two conditions):
    • 1. Diameter of the axon (larger, faster)
    • 2. Presence of Myelin (faster)

    Slower transmission would be needed for autonomic functions (digestion) and faster transmission would be needed for motor and sensory processing (vision, movement, balance)
  23. Synapse Components
    • Presynaptic element
    • Postsynaptic element
    • Synaptic cleft
    • Synaptic vessicles (releases neurotransmitter)
    • neurotransmitter
  24. Types of Synapses (4)
    • 1. axosomatic (axon-body)
    • 2. axodendritic (axon-dendrite)
    • 3. axoaxonix (axon-axon)
    • 4. dendrodendritic (dendrite-dentrite)

    Can also synapse with muscles and glands
  25. Dendrites ( greek for tree)
    • 1. have branching extensions 
    • 2. receive messages
    • 3. conduct impulses toward soma
    • 4. dendritic tree and dendritic branch
  26. Glial Cells are ____ the size of neurons, and there are many ______ comparatively. They cannot generate _______ ________ nor do they have ______ or ________.
    • 1. 1/10
    • 2. more
    • 3. action potentials
    • 4. axons, dendrites
  27. Glial Cells _______ and ________1 neurons, and controls the neurons' _______ of ________.2 They also _______ developing _______ to the right places in the brain. And they effect how neurons ________ with other ________.4 They can also produce their own _____ and release ________.5
    • 1. Hold, support
    • 2. supply, chemicals
    • 3. escort, neurons 
    • 4. communicate, neurons 
    • 5. ATP, chemicals
  28. Classes of Glial Cell (2)
    • 1. Microglial
    • 2. Macroglial
  29. Microglial cells
    process harmful bacteria and act as the brain's immune cells
  30. Macroglial (3 types)
    • 1. Astrocytes
    • 2. Oligodendrocytes 
    • 3. Schwann cells
  31. Astrocytes

    • 1. Fill spaces between neurons
    • 2. regulate chemical content outside cell
    • 3. Einstein had many more than the typical person (creativity)
  32. Oligodendrocytes
    Produces myelin for the CNS (wraps around the multiple axons multiple times)
  33. Schwann Cells 
    Produces myelin for the PNS (one cells serves one axon)
  34. Myelination begins during ______ ________ but then progresses further during ________.
    fetal development, infancy
  35. Visuals of Neuron types

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