CAFF 321 chaps 1-3 test CSULB

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gunnerd71
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CAFF 321 chaps 1-3 test CSULB
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2013-09-18 14:33:18
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Family Consumer Resource Managment
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Definitions from first three lectures/chapters of the book Resource Management for individuals and families
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  1. Choice
    – the act of selecting among alternatives
  2. Risk
    – the possibility or perception of harm, suffering, danger, or loss
  3. •Happiness
    – the degree with which one judges the overall quality of his or her life asfavorable
  4. •Problems
    – questions, dilemmas or situations that require solving
  5. •Needs
    – what we must have to survive or sustain life
  6. •Wants
    – the things or experiences that we desire
  7. Values
    – principles that guidebehavior, such as honesty or loyalty
  8. •Clarification
    – make clear, easier to understand, or elaborate
  9. •Resources
    – whatever is available to be used, such as information, time, skills, humanand mechanical energy, Internet or money
  10. •Standards
    – the quantitative or qualitative criteria that reconcile resources withdemands
  11. •Management tools
    – measuring devices, techniques, or instruments that are used to arriveat decisions and plans of action
  12. Planning helps you to:
    • •Highlight
    • important problems and opportunities

    • •Invest
    • resources in the right place

    • •Encourage
    • the development of goals

    • •Make
    • decision making more efficient and effective

    • •Motivate
    • and coordinate efforts

    • •Provide
    • a feeling of growth and accomplishment

    • •Involve
    • others
  13. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
  14. •Life management
    – all of the decisions a person or family will make and the way values, goals, and resource use affect decision making.
  15. •Self-monitoring
    – assessing or altering actions, language, and reactions according to thosearound them.
  16. •Householder
    – the person or one of the persons in whose name the home is owned or rented.
  17. 1.
    The possibility of perception of harm, suffering danger or loss is called:

    (a)
    Chaos

    (b)
    Clarification

    (c)
    Risk

    (d)
    Implementation
    RISK
  18. 2.
    The quantitative and/or qualitative criteria that reconcile resources with
    demands are known as:

      (a) Feedback

      (b) Stagnation

      (c) Values

      (d) Standards
    STANDARDS
  19. •Work simplification
    – improved methods in the home
  20. Frederick Taylor (1856-1915)
    • •Frederick
    • Taylor (1856-1915)

    • •Father
    • of scientific management and famous for time and motion studies

    • •Proposed
    • management principles designed to maximize production efficiency

    • •His
    • influence went beyond business to non-profits and government

    • •Improved
    • work methods also known as “work simplification”

    • •American
    • homes changing rapidly between 1900 – present with three eras known as (1) premodern,(2)
    • modern, and (3) postmodern
  21. Premodern Era (early 1900s)
    • •Household work – hands on,
    • arduous, specific, repetitive

    • •Kitchen/laundry – inside sink
    • (probably only cold water), stove, washtub or wringer washer, possibly an
    • icebox

    • •Bathroom – outdoor privy, indoor
    • stop buckets, bathtubs or buckets for washing filled with water heated on the
    • stove; wealthy might have indoor plumbing

    • •Shopping – home deliver common;
    • doctors, peddlers and tailors came to the home; groceries, ice, baked goods and
    • dairy products delivered. At stores, shop owners take products off shelf and
    • hand them to customers. Catalog shopping popular

    • •Servants – one for every 15
    • households

    • •Electricity – Newly introduced,
    • rare in homes except wealthy

    • •Lighting – Kerosene (most lower
    • and working class), candles; wealthy had gas plus electricity
  22. Modern Era (1950s to 1990s)
    • •Household work – hands-on and
    • machine aided, specific, repetitive, arduous

    • •Kitchen/laundry – sink with hot
    • and cold water, stove, refrigerator, washing machine, perhaps dryer and
    • dishwasher

    • •Bathroom – sink, toilet,
    • bathtub/shower (one or two bathrooms in a single home)

    • •Shopping – home delivery less
    • common than in early 1900s; customers serve themselves in stores; moderate
    • exposure to media advertising and branding; shopping centers emerge

    • •Servants – one for every 42
    • households

    •Electricity in over 80% of homes

    • •Lighting – electricity in most
    • homes; kerosene will used in rural areas
  23. POSTMODERN (EARLY 21st Century)
    • •Household work – hands-on and
    • machine aided, arduous, specific and repetitive

    • •Kitchen/laundry – sink, stove,
    • dishwasher, microwave, refrigerator, washing machine, dryer

    • •Bathroom – sink, toilet,
    • bathtub/shower, multiple bathrooms typical in new homes; whirlpool baths widely
    • available

    • •Servants – rare, partially
    • replaced by child-care centers and cleaning services

    • •Shopping – home delivery expands
    • with toll-free catalog shopping and Internet; customer self-service typical;
    • shopping malls; multi-purpose super-stores

    • •Pervasive exposure to media
    • advertising and brands

    • •Electricity and lighting in
    • nearly all homes

    • •98% of American homes have
    • telephones, electricity, indoor plumbing
  24. LEGISLATION, POLICY AND RESEARCH
    • •1914
    • – Congress passed the Smith-Lever Act to improve life in rural America by
    • providing funds for programs through the USDA (teacher training and education)

    • •1920s
    • – Industrial era – management principles applied to assembly lines and
    • repetitive work

    • •Laws
    • passed to improve standard of living for all – child labor laws, education,
    • work-leave policies; nutrition and health guidelines, minimum wage, OSHA,
  25. Theory
    – an organized system of ideas or beliefs that can be measured; a system ofassumptions or principles
  26. Hypothesis
    – a prediction about future outcomes
  27. Controlling
    – activities people engage in to check their course of action
  28. Systems theory
    – emphasizes interconnectedness and interactions among different systems
  29. System
    – an integrated set of parts that function together for some end purpose or result
  30. Interface
    – The place or point where independent systems or diverse groups interact
  31. Boundaries
    – limits or borders between systems
  32. Morphogenic System
    – families system that is adaptive to change and relatively open
  33. Morphostatic system
    – family system that is resistant to change and relatively closed
  34. Subsystem
    – part of a largersystem
  35. Inputs
    – whatever is brought in to a system (things, ideas, information)
  36. Throughput
    – the processing of inputs
  37. Outputs
    – end results, products,waste
  38. Demands
    – events or goals that require action for their fulfillment
  39. Sequencing
    –one action or item follows another, as in a series of events
  40. Feedback
    – part of the output is returned to the input in the form of information 

    • - Positive feedback – information put into the system that anticipates and promotes change; indicates a new course of action is needed
    • - Negative feedback – information put into the system that indicates the system is deviating from its normal course and that corrective measures may be necessary if the desired state is to be maintained
  41. Some characteristics of systems
    • •Entropy
    • – tendency toward disorder or randomness

    • •Equilibrium
    • – feedback causes the system to readjust itself to put things back the way they
    • were

    • •Murphy’s
    • Law – If something can go wrong, it will

    • •Homeostasis
    • – tendency to maintain balance

    • •Equifinality
    • – refers to the phenomenon in which different circumstances and opportunities
    • may lead to similar outcomes

    • •Multifinality
    • – phenomenon in which same initial circumstances or conditions may lead to
    • different conclusions or outcomes
  42. Personal system
    • •Goal of personal systems management is to recognize and make productive the specific
    • strengths and abilities of the individual; each person is a system composed of
    • many subsystems

    • •Biological/physiological
    • •Behavioral
    • •Psychological
    • •Social

    • Each individual’s personal system exists within a greater system of relationships,
    • friendships, and family

    • •Inputs to the personal system include other people, the environment, heredity, and
    • past experience – all of which shape the individual’s personal management
    • style.
  43. Family systems theory and management
    • •Goal is to recognize and to make productive the specific strengths and abilities of
    • each family.

    •Tendency toward equilibrium

    • •Boundary ambiguity – common to blended families in which members are unsure where the lines are; how daily life should be arranged; and who should be invited to what
    • family/holiday events
  44. Ecology
    – the study of how living things relate to their natural environment
  45. Human ecology
    – study of humans interacting with their environment
  46. Environment
    – all encompassing external conditions influencing the life of a person or population
  47. Microenvironment
    –the environment that closely surrounds individuals and families
  48. Macroenvironment
    – surrounds and encompasses the microenvironment (sky, trees, and oceans)
  49. •Family ecosystem
    • – the subsystem of human ecology that emphasizes the interactions between families and environments with three basic elements:
    • •Organisms(family members)
    • •Environments(natural and human-built environments)
    • •Family organization (functions to transform energy in the form of information into family decisions and actions)
  50. •Social exchange
    – focuses on individual resources and the trading or bartering of these resources, often related to power in families
  51. •Global Ecosystems
    – encompass all of the family ecosystems
  52. Economic theory
    Application of economic theory to management has attracted renewed attention; based on eight guideposts

    1.Use of scarce resources is costly; trade-offs must be made

    2.Individuals choose purposefully trying to get the most from limited resources

    3.Incentives matter

    4.Individuals focus on the difference in the costs and benefits between alternatives

    5.Information can be scarce and is costly to acquire

    • 6.Actions may generate second effects; decision have both immediate effects and spin-off
    • (later) effects

    7.Preferences vary between individuals

    • 8.Theory is useful in making predictions; the focus in economics is on the behavior of a
    • large group of people
  53. Optimization and Satisficing
    •Optimization is a subtheory that means obtaining the best results, such as maximizing profit for a business

    • •Satisficing – refers to picking the first good alternative that presents itself so that an
    • individual stops searching once it appears that an initial choice will suffice

    • •Risk – the possibility of experiencing har,
    • suffering, danger, or loss
  54. 1.According to the text, improved methods is known as:
    • (a)Labor ease
    • (b)Work simplification
    • (c)Household efficiency
    • (d)Adeptness

    WORK SIMPLIFICATION
  55. 2.Events or goals that require action for their fulfillment is called:
    • (a)Sequencing
    • (b)Feedback
    • (c)Controlling
    • (d)Demand

    DEMAND
  56. Values
    – principles that guide behavior
  57. Value orientation
    – a person’s internally integrated value system
  58. Affective domain
    – feelings
  59. Cognitive domain
    – thinking
  60. Behavior
    – what people actually do
  61. Attitudes
    – outlooks that may express values, serve as a means of evaluation, ordemonstrate feeling in regard to some idea, person, object, even, situation, orfriendship
  62. What is wisdom?
    • •The accumulated philosophic or
    • scientific learning and also the ability to discern inner qualities and
    • relationships,

    • •Person with wisdom listens and
    • has insight, knowledge, and good sense

    • •Wisdom gathering isn’t confined
    • to books but can be experienced (travel, field trips, shadowing a professional
    • in his or her daily work)

    • •People with wisdom seek to
    • connect the dots and find patterns between different realms of life.

    • •Wisdom implies deep thinking –
    • going beyond the surface.
  63. Types of values
    • •Absolute
    • and relative

    • •Intrinsic
    • and extrinsic

    • •Traditional,
    • personal and professional

    • •Instrumental
    • and terminal
  64. Absolute and relative values
    Intrinsic and Extrinsic values
    • •Absolute
    • values – extreme and definitive (can be described in black and white terms)

    • •Relative
    • values – interpreted based on the context (depend on the situation)

    • •Intrinsic
    • values – internally driven

    • •Extrinsic
    • values – externally driven
  65. Traditional and personal values
    • •Traditional values – those
    • commonly held by the predominant society in which one lives

    • •Also
    • known as societal standard (US and Canada vs. Other countries)

    • •When
    • children should begin going to school

    • •Children
    • don’t work in factories

    • •Education
    • is key to success

    •Examples


    • •Wedding
    • veil – consider different religious practices; civil unions

    • •Values
    • are focal points for discussion and policy making

    • •Gov’t
    • campaigns for families to eat together

    • •You
    • have to separate societal values or messages from what you truly believe

    • •Values
    • affect consumption patters

    • •Examples
    • of personal values include giving gift of time, empathy for someone else’s
    • feelings, forgiving, expressing gratitude, mentoring another student/employee,
    • serving the community
  66. Professional values
    • •Related
    • to jobs and careers

    • •Examples
    • include being ambitious, capable, or logical

    • •May
    • be the same as traditional and personal values (politeness and honesty)

    • •Whistleblowers
    • – expose wrongdoing in a company; values are in conflict with the company

    • •Purpose
    • of a job interview?
  67. Instrumental and Terminal values
    • •Terminal
    • values are preferences for end states of existence

    • •Instrumental
    • Values are preferences for general modes of conduct
  68. Definitions associated with Motivation
    • •Motivation
    • – refers toward movement toward goals or other desired outcomes and also to
    • vigor, drive, persistence, creativity, direction, and sustained energy.

    • •Expertise
    • – The characteristics, skills, and knowledge that distinguish experts from
    • novices and less experienced people

    • •Intrinsic
    • motivation – involves the underlying causes and the internal need for
    • competence and self-determination

    • •Extrinsic
    • motivation – involves forces external to the individual
  69. 1.According to the text, a person’s internally integrated value system is called:

    (a)Value orientation

    (b)Value attitude

    (c)System value

    (d)Internal value
    VALUE ORIENTATION
  70. 1.Pat wants to go to graduate from college within 5 years. Completing courses and earning passing grades is an example of Pat’s

    (a)Primary goal

    (b)Secondary goal

    (c)External motivation

    (d)Sustained value chain
    SECONDARY GOAL

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