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What are the 5 vital signs?
- Blood Pressure
How often do nurses take vital signs?
as often as the patients condition requires it
What is the normal temperature range for an adult?
36.0 - 37.5 C (97.0 - 99.5 F)
What is the normal pulse rate for an adult?
60 - 100 beats/min
What is the normal pulse rate for an infant?
What is the normal respiratory rate for an adult?
What is te normal respiratory rate for an infant?
30 - 80 breaths/min
what is the normal blood pressure for an adult?
What is the normal blood pressure for an infant?
What is pyrexia?
- temp over 37 C or 98.6 F
What is an intermittent fever?
when a pt alternates between periods of fever and normal or subnormal temps
What is a remittant fever?
when the pt alternates several degrees above 2 degrees C (3.6 F) above normal but does not reach normal
What is a constant fever?
temperature that remains consistantly elevated and flucuates less than 2 degrees C (3.6 F)
What is a relapsing fever?
A temp that returns to normal for at least a day but then the fever returns
What is crisis in terms of a fever?
when the fever returns to normal suddenly
What is lysis in terms of fever?
When the fever returns to normal gradually
What is hyperpyrexia?
a fever above 41 C (105.8 F)
what is hypothermia?
temp below 36C (97F)
What are the 5 sites for taking a temperature?
list in order of temperature reading
What are the 5 pulse amplitudes?
- 0 - absent
- 1+ - thready
- 2+ - weak
- 3+ - normal
- 4+ - bounding
What is tachycardia?
- rapid pulse rate
- 100 - 180 beats/ min in adults
What is bradycardia?
- Slow pulse rate
- <80 beats/min
What factors can cause tachycardia?
- decrease in BP
- Elevated temp
- poor oxygenation of the blood
- prolonged application of heat
- strong emotions
What is dysrhythmia
an irregular pattern of heart beats
What are the 9 sites for taking the pulse?
- posterior tibial
- dorsalis pedis
What is the pulse deficit?
the difference between the apical and radial pulses.
What are the three phases of respiration?
What is ventilation?
the movement of air in and out of the lungs
What is diffusion?
the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli of the lungs and the circulating blood
What is perfusion?
The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the circulating blood and the tissue cells
Wht is eupnea?
What is tachypnea?
increased respiratory rate
What factors affect respiratory rate?
- acid-base balance
- brain lesions
- increased altitude
- respiratory diseases
- acute pain
What is bradypnea?
decreased respiratory rate
What is apnea?
absense of breathing
what is dyspnea?
difficult or labored breathing
what is orthopnea?
breathing more easily while sitting upright
What is hyperventilation?
increased rate and depth of breaths
What is hypoventilation?
decreased rate and depth, irregular
What are Cheyne-Stokes respirations?
alternating periods of deep rapid breathing followed by periods of apnea; regular
What disorders are associated with Cheyne-Stokes respirations?
- drug overdose
- heart failure
- increased intracranial pressure
- renal failure
What are Biot's respirations?
varying depth and rate of breathing followed by periods of apnea; irregular
What disorders are associated with Biot's respirations?
- severe brain damage
What are some factors affecting blood pressure?
- circadian rhythm
- food intake
- emotional state
- body position
What is orthostatic hypotension?
a rapid decrease in blood pressure when moving from the siting/laying position to a standing position
What are Korotkoff sounds?
the series of sounds that you hear upon auscultation of the blood pressure
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