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What are the 5 main purposes of the skeletal system?
- supporting soft tissues
- protecting crucial organs
- furnishing surfaces for the attachment of muscles, tendons and ligaments
- providing storage for minerals
- producing blood cells
What are the 4 types of bones?
- long - height and length - femur
- short - contribute to movement - wrist bones
- flat - shape, protection - ribs
- irregular - everything else - vertebrae
What is abduction?
lateral movement away from the body
What is adduction?
lateral movement towards the body
what is circumduction?
movement of the distal part of a limb in a circle while the proximal end stays in place
What is flexion?
the state of being bent
What is extension?
the state of being in a straight line
What is hyperextension?
- exaggerated extension
- > 180 degrees
What is dorsifexion?
backward bending of the hand or foot
What is plantar flexion?
flexion of the foot downward
What is rotation?
turning on an axis
What is internal rotation?
turning on an axis towards the midline of the body
What is external rotation?
turning on an axis away from the midline of the body
What is pronation?
the assumption of the prone position
What is supination?
the assumption of the supine position
What is inversion?
movement of the sole of the foot inward
What is eversion?
the movement of the foot outward
What are ligaments?
connect bones and cartilage
What are tendons?
attach muscle and bone
What is cartilage
nonvascular connective tissue in some joints to act as a shock absorber
What are the three types of muscle?
What are the main functions of the muscular system?
- maintenence of posture
- heat production
What are the 4 postural reflexes?
- Labyrinthine sense
- proprioceptor/kinesthetic sense
- visual/optical sense
- Extensor/stretch reflexes
What is the labyrinthine sense?
sense of position and movement by organs in the inner ear
What is the proprioceptor/kinesthetic sense?
knowing the location of a limb or body part based on stimulation from joints
What is the visual/optic sense?
spatial awarness with the environment
What are extensor/stretch reflexes?
unconscious repsonses causes when muscles are stretched beyond a certain point
What is orthopedics?
the correction or prevention of disorders of body structure used in locomotion
What is tonus?
- the state of slight contraction
- the normal state of muscles
What are contractures?
permanent contractions of muscles
What is negative nitrogen balance?
a larger breakdown of protein than that which is manufactured
What is isotonic exercise?
- involves muscle shortening and active movement
- ADL, ROM, running
What is isometric exercise?
- muscle contraction without shortening
- contractions of the gluteal muscles, kegells
What is isokinetic exercise?
- muscle contraction with resistance
- lifting weights
What is osteoporosis?
the demineralization of bones
What are the 6 components of the physical assessment of mobility status?
- General ease of movement
- Gait and Posture
- Joint Structure and Function
- Muscle mass, tone and strength
What is Range of Motion?
the complete extent of movement of which a joint is normally capable.
What is muscle flaccidity?
decreased tone, hypotonicity
What is muscle spasticity?
increased muscle tone that interferes with movement
What is paresis?
impaired muscle strength or weakness
What is paralysis?
the absence of muscle strength due to nervous impairment
What is hemiparesis?
the weakness of one half of the body, such as in a stoke victim
What is hemiplegia?
the paralysis of one half of the body
What is paraplegia?
the paralysis of the legs
What is quadraplegia?
the paralysis of all four limbs
What is foot drop?
the foot is unable to maintain itself in the perpendicular position, heel-toe gait is impossible and the patient experience extreme difficulty in walking.
What is the Fowler's position?
head of the bed at a 45-60 degree angle
What is active exercise?
the pt independently moves joints through their full range of motion
What is passive exercise?
the pt is unable to move independently and the nurse moves the joints through full range of motion
What is dangling?
the position in which the pt sits up at the edge of the bed with legs and feet hanging over the edge