Chap 33 activity

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Chap 33 activity
2013-09-18 14:41:50

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  1. What are the 5 main purposes of the skeletal system?
    • supporting soft tissues
    • protecting crucial organs
    • furnishing surfaces for the attachment of muscles, tendons and ligaments
    • providing storage for minerals
    • producing blood cells
  2. What are the 4 types of bones?
    • long - height and length - femur
    • short - contribute to movement - wrist bones
    • flat - shape, protection - ribs
    • irregular - everything else - vertebrae
  3. What is abduction?
    lateral movement away from the body
  4. What is adduction?
    lateral movement towards the body
  5. what is circumduction?
    movement of the distal part of a limb in a circle while the proximal end stays in place
  6. What is flexion?
    the state of being bent
  7. What is extension?
    the state of being in a straight line
  8. What is hyperextension?
    • exaggerated extension
    • > 180 degrees
  9. What is dorsifexion?
    backward bending of the hand or foot
  10. What is plantar flexion?
    flexion of the foot downward
  11. What is rotation?
    turning on an axis
  12. What is internal rotation?
    turning on an axis towards the midline of the body
  13. What is external rotation?
    turning on an axis away from the midline of the body
  14. What is pronation?
    the assumption of the prone position
  15. What is supination?
    the assumption of the supine position
  16. What is inversion?
    movement of the sole of the foot inward
  17. What is eversion?
    the movement of the foot outward
  18. What are ligaments?
    connect bones and cartilage
  19. What are tendons?
    attach muscle and bone
  20. What is cartilage
    nonvascular connective tissue in some joints to act as a shock absorber
  21. What are the three types of muscle?
    • cardiac
    • skeletal
    • smooth/visceral
  22. What are the main functions of the muscular system?
    • motion
    • maintenence of posture
    • heat production
  23. What are the 4 postural reflexes?
    • Labyrinthine sense
    • proprioceptor/kinesthetic sense
    • visual/optical sense
    • Extensor/stretch reflexes
  24. What is the labyrinthine sense?
    sense of position and movement by organs in theĀ inner ear
  25. What is the proprioceptor/kinesthetic sense?
    knowing the location of a limb or body part based on stimulation from joints
  26. What is the visual/optic sense?
    spatial awarness with the environment
  27. What are extensor/stretch reflexes?
    unconscious repsonses causes when muscles are stretched beyond a certain point
  28. What is orthopedics?
    the correction or prevention of disorders of body structure used in locomotion
  29. What is tonus?
    • the state of slight contraction
    • the normal state of muscles
  30. What are contractures?
    permanent contractions of muscles
  31. What is negative nitrogen balance?
    a larger breakdown of protein than that which is manufactured
  32. What is isotonic exercise?
    • involves muscle shortening and active movement
    • ADL, ROM, running
  33. What is isometric exercise?
    • muscle contraction without shortening
    • contractions of the gluteal muscles, kegells
  34. What is isokinetic exercise?
    • muscle contraction with resistance
    • lifting weights
  35. What is osteoporosis?
    the demineralization of bones
  36. What are the 6 components of the physical assessment of mobility status?
    • General ease of movement
    • Gait and Posture
    • Alignment
    • Joint Structure and Function
    • Muscle mass, tone and strength
    • Endurance
  37. What is Range of Motion?
    the complete extent of movement of which a joint is normally capable.
  38. What is muscle flaccidity?
    decreased tone, hypotonicity
  39. What is muscle spasticity?
    increased muscle tone that interferes with movement
  40. What is paresis?
    impaired muscle strength or weakness
  41. What is paralysis?
    the absence of muscle strength due to nervous impairment
  42. What is hemiparesis?
    the weakness of one half of the body, such as in a stoke victim
  43. What is hemiplegia?
    the paralysis of one half of the body
  44. What is paraplegia?
    the paralysis of the legs
  45. What is quadraplegia?
    the paralysis of all four limbs
  46. What is foot drop?
    the foot is unable to maintain itself in the perpendicular position, heel-toe gait is impossible and the patient experience extreme difficulty in walking.
  47. What is the Fowler's position?
    head of the bed at a 45-60 degree angle
  48. What is active exercise?
    the pt independently moves joints through their full range of motion
  49. What is passive exercise?
    the pt is unable to move independently and the nurse moves the joints through full range of motion
  50. What is dangling?
    the position in which the pt sits up at the edge of the bed with legs and feet hanging over the edge