Informal Logical Fallacies
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Ad Hominem Argument
From the Latin root " to the man" Is a personal attack on an opponent rather than on an opponent argument or views.
Name calling and character assassination in order to dispute or dismiss a view or argument should make a reader or listener suspicious.
Ad misericordium argument
The appeal to "pity" although an appeal to emotions need not be fallacious or discreditable when an argument is based solely on the exploitation of the readers or listeners sympathy and compassion the issue tends to get lost.
Ad Populum Argument:
From the latin root " to the people" it is just an argument that appeals to the supposed prejudices and emotions of the masses, the crowd, the people.
A linguistic fallacy this occurs when a clause or sentence is open to more than one interpretation on how its constituents are considered to be related.
Cause of poor writing
- Familiar strategy makes the claim that everybody or most people are doing this and thinking that.
- The basic appeal in this argument is to group solidarity and acceptance to behave like the majority. ( Everyone is doing it and so should you.)
Begging the question
Begging the question passes of as true an assumption usually an opinion that needs to be proven.
The conclusion of a deductive argument is hidden in a premise or reason of the argument. the argument goes around in a circle.The circularity is disguised in a tangle of words.
Linguistic fallacy occurs when aword or phrase is ambiguous. open to two or more interpretation.
Fallacy of extension (Straw Man Fallacy):
Fallacy of extension occurs when there is a misrepresentation or distortion an exaggeration or overstatement of a issue or reason.
(a straw man is set up to alarm or frighten the reader or audience)
Occurs when the two things compared do not match up exactly or feature for feature, the idea being compared to do not logically connext or are pressed beyond legitimacy
Involves the simplification of complex, complicated issues into an either/ or choice , takes the form of sloganizing ultimatum which appeals to ignorance and emotion.
Fault use of authority
The faulty use of authority occurs when an expert in one area is used as an authority in another unrelated area.
(Advertising frequently resorts to the faulty of authority to promote products.
Most frequent fallacy, occurs when a writer or Speaker arrives at a conclusion based upon to little evidence. Also occurs when a writer or speaker relies on evidence that is not factual or substantiated.
From the latin root does not follow, is a conclusion that does not follow logically or reasonably from the reasons or premise.
Example: She's to pretty to be smart.
Post hoc ergo propter hoc
Latin for "after this, therefore because of this", arguement is one that presents a questionable or invalid cause- and effect- relationship between events. It claims that because Y event follows event X,,,, Event X causes Event Y
Irrelevant information or evidence that distracts the audience or reader from the issue.
(Origin: named after the old practical joke of throwing hunting dogs of the trail of their real prey using red herring scent.)
Argument presumes that one event will inevitably lead to a chain of other events usually undesirable or catastrophic.
( This domino effect reasoning is fallacious because it depends more upon presumption and hazy prognostication than upon hard evidence)
Standing the deck
When a writer or speaker presents only the evidence or information that supports his or her conclusion, disregarding or withholding contrary evidence or information
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