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5 functions of bones
-blood cell formation
description of compact bone? (2)
description of spongy bone? (2)
2 parts of long bone
2 parts of long bone- description of diaphysis
2 parts of long bone- what 2 things make up diaphysis made off?
2 parts of long bone- description of epiphysis
-bulbous end of bones
2 parts of long bone- Epiphysis- What does epiphysis contain?
- -articular cartilage
- -epiphyseal line
- *old growth plate
which are the 2 membranes in long bone?
2 membranes in long bone- where is the Periosteum located?
it is the outside covering
2 membranes in long bone- Where is the endosteum located?
- inside lining
- *medullary cavity and spongy bone
2 membranes in long bone- what types of cells do periosteum and endosteum contain?
how is the compact bone and spongy bone positioned in short, irregular, and flat bones?
compact bone sandwiching spongy bone
In flat bones, what is the spongy bone called?
Do short, irregular, and flat bones contain perisoteum and endosteum?
What is the function of hematopoietic tissue?
tissues that develops blood
hematopoietic tissues- What is the function of rd marrow?
areas where blood formation occurs
hematopoietic tissues- In adults where is red marrow foiund? (2)
-generally within the trabecular cavities of select long bones
-diploë of flat bones
hematopoietic tissues- why is the medullary cavity called yellow marrow in adulthood?
- this area turns into fat
- *in infants, this cavity contains red marrow
histology of compact bone- what is an osteon? (2)
-they are structural unit of compact bone
-cylinders of bone
histology of compact bone- What are lamellae?
they care concentric layers that form osteon
histology of compact bone- What are haversion canals?
- central canal of osteons
- *these are filled with blood vessels that supply nutrients to bones even at the deepest portions
histology of compact bone- what are volkmann canal?
- transverse canals
- *runs laterally from haversion canals
histology of compact bone- What are osteocytes?
mature bone cells
histology of compact bone- what are lacunae?
cavities containing osteocytes
histology of compact bone- What are canaliculi?
connect lacunae and haversion canals
histology of compact bone- what are interstitial lamellae?
they are found between osteons
histology of compact bone- what are circumferential lamallae?
these encircle the whole bone
histology of spongy bone- where are trabaculae arranged?
- they align along lines of stress
- *if arm gets alot of stress then they will form more on the arm
microscopic chemical composition of bone- cells- What are osteogenic cells?
microscopic chemical composition of bone- cells- what are osteoblast cells? (2)
-cells responsible for bone growth
microscopic chemical composition of bone- cells- What are osteocytes? (2)
-mature bone cells
-maintain the bone matrix
microscopic chemical composition of bone- cells- What are osteoclast?
- -bone resorbing cell
- *destroys bones
microscopic chemical composition of bone- cells- do osteoclast derive from same stem cell as the other 3 cells?
no, it derives from WBC
Matrix- Ground substance- What is the ground substance made up off?
- *this is secreted by osteoblasts
Matrix- Ground substance- What 3 things can make up ground subtance?
Matrix- Ground substance- What are proteglycans?
large protein and CHO
Matrix- Ground substance- what are glycoproteins?
smaller protein and CHO
Matrix- Ground substance- What are hydroxyapatites?
- calcium phosphates
- *this comes out when matrix is broken down
Matrix- fiber- what type of fibers are in bones?
- *low water content compared to cartilage
What is the function of having compact bone periphery and spongy bone central?
strong but light weight
What is the function of having calcium phosphates?
calcium and phosphate stores
What is the function of having osteoclasts and blast and osteogenic cells? (2)
-clasts break down bone for relaease of minearals
-blasts build bone
What is the function of having marrow cavity?
space for blood cell development
what is osteogenesis?
formation of bone
what is the precursor of intramembranous ossification?
an embryonic connective tissue called mesenchyme
intramembraneous ossification- 4 steps of this process
-initial ossification center
-secretion and calcification of osteoid
-formation of woven bone
-lamellar bone replaces woven bone
intramembraneous ossification- where can this type of ossification be found in?
where does endochondral ossification occur?
endochondral ossification- what is the precursor tissue?
endochondral ossification- 5 steps- what happens in step 1
osteoblasts form bone collar around the cartilage
endochondral ossification- 5 steps- what happens in step 2? (2)
-central cartilage calcifies
endochondral ossification- 5 steps- What happens in step 3?
- -periosteal bud invades
- *artery, vein, and nerve fibers
- **these bring osteoclasts
endochondral ossification- 5 steps- what happens in step 4? (3)
-bone grow longer
-medullary cavity forms
-2ndary ossification begins at epiphyseal regions
endochondral ossification- 5 steps- What happens in step 5?
-epiphyses ossify leaving cartilage within epiphyseal plate and at articular surfaces of bone
long bone growth- how does it grow in length?
cartilage growth followed by replacement of cartilage by bone
long bone growth- does the cartilage grow on distal end of epiphysis and/or epiphyseal plate?
long bone growth- what happens to the cartilage at epiphyseal plate?
- it is replaced by bone
- *osteoblasts multiply and secrete matrix on shaft side of epiphyseal plate
long bone growth-what follows osteoblasts to carve out medullary cavity?
long bone growth- what happens to the epiphyseal plate once growth is finsihed?
it turns into epiphyseal line
long bone growth- after growth is finshed, where does the cartilage appear?
- on the distal end of epiphysis
- *where bones have articular surfaces
appositional- how does the bone grow thicker?
periosteal osteoblast lays down bone and secretes matrix
regulations of bone functions- what 3 hormones regulate growth?
-androgenic and estrogenic steroids
regulations of bone functions-growth hormone- where is GH released from and what causes the liver to release?
-causes liver to release somatomedins
regulations of bone functions-GH- what does somatomedins do?
initiates cartilage growth at epiphyseal plate
regulations of bone functions- what does androgenic and estrogenic steroids do?
epiphyseal plate closure
remodeling- what are groups of osteoblasts and osteoclasts called?
remodeling- What do remodeling units do?
continuously synthesize and remove bone
remodeling- What are the areas of new deposit referred as? and how long does it calcify?
-osteoid seam and it take about a week to calcify
remodeling- in areas of resorption, what do osteoclasts do?
dig depressions to break down matrix
remodeling- why do osteoclasts disgest material?
the material will then become soluble and can be relased into bloodstream
remodeling- What do osteoclasts remove?
remodeling-hormones- What does the parathyroid hormone do?
increases osteoclast activity
remodeling-hormones- when are the parathyroid hormone released?
when calcium level is low
remodeling-hormones- what are calcitonin?
they inhibit osteoclasts
response to mechanical stress- What is wolff's law?
- bone grows and remodels in response to mechanical demand
- *muscle pull and load
response to mechanical stress- 4 things that attirubte to wolffs law?
-asymmetrical limb thickness
- -increased thickness at curved areas
- *most likely to buckle under tension
- -spongy bone trusses along lines of compression
- *to strengthen the central part of bone
- -enhanced bony projections at muscle attachments
- *they are built that way to withstand stress