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efrain12
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235666
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1.12
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2013-09-18 19:46:19
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physiology of bones
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  1. 5 functions of bones
    -support

    -protection

    -movement

    -mineral storage

    -blood cell formation
  2. description of compact bone? (2)
    -smooth

    -continuous solid
  3. description of spongy bone? (2)
    -narrow

    -irregular bars
  4. 4 types of bone shapes
    • -long
    • *femur

    • -flat
    • *sternum

    -short

    • -irregular
    • *vertebra
  5. 2 parts of long bone
    -diaphysis

    -epiphysis
  6. 2 parts of long bone- description of diaphysis
    -shaft
  7. 2 parts of long bone- what 2 things make up diaphysis made off?
    -compact bone 

    -medullary cavity
  8. 2 parts of long bone- description of epiphysis
    -bulbous end of bones
  9. 2 parts of long bone- Epiphysis- What does epiphysis contain?
    • -articular cartilage
    • *hyaline

    • -epiphyseal line
    • *old growth plate
  10. which are the 2 membranes in long bone?
    -periosteum

    -endosteum
  11. 2 membranes in long bone- where is the Periosteum located?
    it is the outside covering
  12. 2 membranes in long bone- Where is the endosteum located?
    • inside lining 
    • *medullary cavity and spongy bone
  13. 2 membranes in long bone- what types of cells do periosteum and endosteum contain?
    osteogenic cells
  14. how is the compact bone and spongy bone positioned in short, irregular, and flat bones?
    compact bone sandwiching spongy bone
  15. In flat bones, what is the spongy bone called?
    diploë
  16. Do short, irregular, and flat bones contain perisoteum and endosteum?
    yes
  17. What is the function of hematopoietic tissue?
    tissues that develops blood
  18. hematopoietic tissues- What is the function of rd marrow?
    areas where blood formation occurs
  19. hematopoietic tissues- In adults where is red marrow foiund? (2)
    -generally within the trabecular cavities of select long bones

    -diploë of flat bones
  20. hematopoietic tissues- why is the medullary cavity called yellow marrow in adulthood?
    • this area turns into fat
    • *in infants, this cavity contains red marrow
  21. histology of compact bone- what is an osteon? (2)
    -they are structural unit of compact bone

    -cylinders of bone
  22. histology of compact bone- What are lamellae?
    they care concentric layers that form osteon
  23. histology of compact bone-  What are haversion canals?
    • central canal of osteons
    • *these are filled with blood vessels that supply nutrients to bones even at the deepest portions
  24. histology of compact bone-  what are volkmann canal?
    • transverse canals
    • *runs laterally from haversion canals
  25. histology of compact bone- What are osteocytes?
    mature bone cells
  26. histology of compact bone- what are lacunae?
    cavities containing osteocytes
  27. histology of compact bone- What are canaliculi?
    connect lacunae and haversion canals
  28. histology of compact bone- what are interstitial lamellae?
    they are found between osteons
  29. histology of compact bone- what are circumferential lamallae?
    these encircle the whole bone
  30. histology of spongy bone- where are trabaculae arranged?
    • they align along lines of stress
    • *if arm gets alot of stress then they will form more on the arm
  31. microscopic chemical composition of bone- cells- What are osteogenic cells?
    stem cells
  32. microscopic chemical composition of bone- cells- what are osteoblast cells? (2)
    -synthesizes matrix

    -cells responsible for bone growth
  33. microscopic chemical composition of bone- cells- What are osteocytes? (2)
    -mature bone cells

    -maintain the bone matrix
  34. microscopic chemical composition of bone- cells- What are osteoclast?
    • -bone resorbing cell
    • *destroys bones
  35. microscopic chemical composition of bone- cells- do osteoclast derive from same stem cell as the other 3 cells?
    no, it derives from WBC
  36. Matrix- Ground substance- What is the ground substance made up off?
    • osteoid
    • *this is secreted by osteoblasts
  37. Matrix- Ground substance- What 3 things can make up ground subtance?
    -proteoglycans

    -glycoproteins

    -hydrocyapatites
  38. Matrix- Ground substance- What are proteglycans?
    large protein and CHO
  39. Matrix- Ground substance- what are glycoproteins?
    smaller protein and CHO
  40. Matrix- Ground substance- What are hydroxyapatites?
    • calcium phosphates
    • *this comes out when matrix is broken down
  41. Matrix- fiber- what type of fibers are in bones?
    • collagen
    • *low water content compared to cartilage
  42. What is the function of having compact bone periphery and spongy bone central?
    strong but light weight
  43. What is the function of having calcium phosphates?
    calcium and phosphate stores
  44. What is the function of having osteoclasts and blast and osteogenic cells? (2)
    -clasts break down bone for relaease of minearals

    -blasts build bone
  45. What is the function of having marrow cavity?
    space for blood cell development
  46. what is osteogenesis?
    formation of bone
  47. what is the precursor of intramembranous ossification?
    an embryonic connective tissue called mesenchyme
  48. intramembraneous ossification- 4 steps of this process
    -initial ossification center

    -secretion and calcification of osteoid

    -formation of woven bone

    -lamellar bone replaces woven bone
  49. intramembraneous ossification- where can this type of ossification be found in?
    flat bones
  50. where does endochondral ossification occur?
    long bones
  51. endochondral ossification- what is the precursor tissue?
    cartilage
  52. endochondral ossification- 5 steps- what happens in step 1
    osteoblasts form bone collar around the cartilage
  53. endochondral ossification- 5 steps- what happens in step 2? (2)
    -central cartilage calcifies

    -cavities develop
  54. endochondral ossification- 5 steps- What happens in step 3?
    • -periosteal bud invades
    • *artery, vein, and nerve fibers
    • **these bring osteoclasts
  55. endochondral ossification- 5 steps- what happens in step 4? (3)
    -bone grow longer

    -medullary cavity forms

    -2ndary ossification begins at epiphyseal regions
  56. endochondral ossification- 5 steps- What happens in step 5?
    -epiphyses ossify leaving cartilage within epiphyseal plate and at articular surfaces of bone
  57. long bone growth- how does it grow in length?
    cartilage growth followed by replacement of cartilage by bone
  58. long bone growth- does the cartilage grow on distal end of epiphysis and/or epiphyseal plate?
    both sides
  59. long bone growth- what happens to the cartilage at epiphyseal plate?
    • it is replaced by bone
    • *osteoblasts multiply and secrete matrix on shaft side of epiphyseal plate
  60. long bone growth-what follows osteoblasts to carve out medullary cavity?
    osteoclasts
  61. long bone growth- what happens to the epiphyseal plate once growth is finsihed?
    it turns into epiphyseal line
  62. long bone growth- after growth is finshed, where does the cartilage appear?
    • on the distal end of epiphysis
    • *where bones have articular surfaces
  63. appositional- how does the bone grow thicker?
    periosteal osteoblast lays down bone and secretes matrix
  64. regulations of bone functions- what 3 hormones regulate growth?
    -growth hormone

    -thyroid hormone

    -androgenic and estrogenic steroids
  65. regulations of bone functions-growth hormone- where is GH released from and what causes the liver to release?
    -anterior pituatary

    -causes liver to release somatomedins
  66. regulations of bone functions-GH- what does somatomedins do?
    initiates cartilage growth at epiphyseal plate
  67. regulations of bone functions- what does androgenic and estrogenic steroids do?
    epiphyseal plate closure
  68. remodeling- what are groups of osteoblasts and osteoclasts called?
    remodeling units
  69. remodeling- What do remodeling units do?
    continuously synthesize and remove bone
  70. remodeling- What are the areas of new deposit referred as? and how long does it calcify?
    -osteoid seam and it take about a week to calcify
  71. remodeling- in areas of resorption, what do osteoclasts do?
    dig depressions to break down matrix
  72. remodeling- why do osteoclasts disgest material?
    the material will then become soluble and can be relased into bloodstream
  73. remodeling- What do osteoclasts remove?
    dead osteocytes
  74. remodeling-hormones- What does the parathyroid hormone do?
    increases osteoclast activity
  75. remodeling-hormones- when are the parathyroid hormone released?
    when calcium level is low
  76. remodeling-hormones- what are calcitonin?
    they inhibit osteoclasts
  77. response to mechanical stress- What is wolff's law?
    • bone grows and remodels in response to mechanical demand
    • *muscle pull and load
  78. response to mechanical stress- 4 things that attirubte to wolffs law?
    -asymmetrical limb thickness

    • -increased thickness at curved areas
    • *most likely to buckle under tension

    • -spongy bone trusses along lines of compression
    • *to strengthen the central part of bone

    • -enhanced bony projections at muscle attachments
    • *they are built that way to withstand stress

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