A&P Lecture

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A&P Lecture
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2013-09-18 19:34:25
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Review questions Luis
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Review questions for chapter 1
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  1. Name and briefly explain the three main subdivisions of anatomy
    • Gross or macroscopic (regional, systemic, surface)
    • Microscopic (cytology, histology)
    • Developmental (embryology)
  2. Briefly explain the subdivisions of Gross Anatomy
    Gross anatomy: study of large body structures visible to the naked eye.
  3. Briefly explain the subdivisions of Microscopic Anatomy
    Microscopic anatomy: examination of body tissues using a microscope
  4. What is "Physiology"?
    Physiology:  function of the body’s structural machinery, “How it works”
  5. Briefly explain the three fundamental concepts of Anatomy and Physiology
    • Complementarity of structure and function: Anatomy doesn’t make sense without physiology and vice versa
    • Hierarchy of structural organization:  The human body has many levels of structural organization (from simple to complex)
    • Homeostasis: Maintaining a stable internal environment, regardless of changes in the external environment
  6. Describe the 6 levels in the hierarchy of structural organization
  7. Describe the main components and functions of the Integumentary system
    • Major organs or tissues:
    •    hair 
    •    skin
    •    nails
    • Primary Functions:
    •    Protects deeper tissues from injury and infection
    •    houses cutaneous receptors (pain, pressure) and sweat glands (temperature regulation)
  8. Describe the main components and functions of the Skeletal System
    • Major organs or tissues:
    •    Bones
    •    Joints
    • Primary Functions:
    •    Protects and supports body organs
    •    Framework for muscles(body movements)
    •    Blood cells formed in bones
    •    Bones store minerals
  9. Describe the main components and functions of the Muscular System
    • Major organs or tissues:
    •    Skeletal Muscles    

    • Primary Functions:
    • Movement of the body (locomotion)
  10. Describe the main components and functions of the Nervous system
    • Major organs or tissues:
    •    Brain
    •    Spinal Cord
    •    Nerves
    • Primary Functions:
    •    Fast-acting response to changes in the internal and external environment
    •    Learning cognition
  11. Describe the main components and functions of the Endocrine System
    • Major organs or tissues:
    •    Pituitary gland
    •    Thyroid gland
    •    Thymus
    •    Adrenal gland
    •    Pancreas
    •    Testes
    •    Ovaries
    • Primary Functions:
    •    Secrete hormones that regulate growth
    •    Metabolism
    •    Reproduction
  12. Describe the main components and functions of the Cardiovascular System
    • Major organs or tissues: 
    •    Heart
    •    Blood vessels
    • Primary Functions:
    •    Pumps(heart) and transports (vessels) blood which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide nutrients and wastes.
  13. Describe the main components and functions of the Lymphatic/Immune system
    • Major organs or tissues:
    •    Red bone marrow
    •    Thymus
    •    Lymphatic vessels
    •    Spleen
    •    Lymph nodes
    • Primary Functions:  
    •    Defense against foreign invaders
    •    Formation of white blood cells
    •    Return of fluid leaked form blood vessels to blood
  14. Describe the main components and functions of the Respiratory
    • Major organs or tissues: 
    •    Nose
    •    Pharynx
    •    Larynx
    •    Trachea
    •    Bronchi lungs  
    • Primary Functions:   
    •    Keeps blood supplied with oxygen 
    •    Removes carbon dioxide form blood
  15. Describe the main components and functions of the Digestive system
    • Major organs or tissues:
    •    Mouth
    •    Esophagus
    •    Stomach
    •    Intestines
    •    Pancreas
    •    Liver
    •    Gall bladder
    •    Rectum anus    
    • Primary Functions:
    •   Break down food into absorptive units
    •   Excretion of indigestible food
  16. Describe the main components and functions of the Urinary system
    • Major organs or tissues:  
    •    Kidney
    •    Ureter
    •    Bladder
    •    Urethra
    • Primary Functions:
    •    Eliminates nitrogenous wastes (Breakdown of protein)
    •    Regulates water
    •    Electrolyte and pH balance of blood
  17. Describe the main components and functions of the Male Reproductive system
    • Major organs or tissues:  
    •    Prostate
    •    Penis
    •    Testes
    •    Scrotum
    •    Ductus deferens  
    • Primary Functions:
    •    Production of sperm and male sex    hormones
    •    Transfer of sperm to female
  18. Describe the main components and functions of the Female Reproductive system
    • Major organs or tissues:  
    •    Ovaries
    •    Uterine tube
    •    Uterus
    •    Vagina
    •    Mammary glands
    • Primary Functions:
    •    Production of eggs and female sex hormones
    •    Site of fertilization and fetus development
    •    Nutrition for infant
  19. What are the two compartments that make up the internal environment of the body?
    • Negative Feedback
    • Positive Feedback
  20. Explain how negative feedback systems work. How is this related to homeostasis?
    • Most homeostatic mechanisms
    •    Effector “shuts off” or reduces the original stimulus
    •    Opposite direction
    •    Returns variable to “normal” range
    •    Prevents sudden or severe changes in the body
  21. For examples given in class, you must know if they fall into the negative or the positive feedback category.
    • Effector “enhances” the original stimulus          Same direction
    •    Process continues at a faster rate
    •    Pushes variable out of “normal” range
  22. What happens when homeostasis is disturbed?  Be able to name some examples.
    There's a change withing the internal environment.
  23. Describe the main components and functions of the
    Major organs or tissues:     Primary Functions:
  24. Describe the main components and functions of the
    Major organs or tissues:     Primary Functions:

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