Logic Chapter 3

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amcmullen
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235672
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Logic Chapter 3
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2013-09-25 21:46:58
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Informal Fallacies
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  1. Fallacy
    • A defect in an argument that consists of something other than false premises alone
    • Non-Sequitur - it does not follow
    • Informal or Formal
  2. Formal Fallacy
    • A fallacy that can be identified by merely examining the form or structure of an argument
    • Only found in deductive arguments that have identifiable form
  3. Informal Fallacy
    A fallacy that can be detected only through analysis of the content of an argument
  4. Fallacies of Relevance
    • A group of informal fallacies that occur when the premises of an argument presume what they purport to prove
    • Arguments which have premises that are logically irrelevant to the conclusion
  5. Types of Fallacies of Relevance
    • Appeal to Force
    • Appeal to Pity
    • Appeal to the People
    • Argument Against the Person
    • Accident
    • Straw Man Fallacy
    • Missing the Point
    • Red Herring
  6. Fallacies of Relevance - Appeal to Force
    • Argumentum ad Baculum
    • An informal fallacy that occurs when an arguer threatens a reader or listener for the purpose of getting him or her to accept a conclusion
  7. Fallacies of Relevance - Appeal to Pity
    • Argumentum ad Misericordiam
    • An informal fallacy that occurs when an arguer attempts to evoke pity from a reader or listener for the purpose of getting him or her to accept a conclusion
  8. Fallacies of Relevance - Appeal to the People
    • Argumentum ad Populum
    • An informal fallacy that occurs when an arguer plays on certain psychological needs for the purpose of getting the reader or listener to accept a conclusion
    • Direct Approach or Indirect Approach
  9. Fallacies of Relevance - Appeal to the People - Direct Approach
    Occurs when an arguer excites the emotions and enthusiasm of a large group of people to win acceptance for his or her conclusion.
  10. Fallacies of Relevance - Appeal to the People - Indirect Approach
    • Occurs when an arguer aims his or her appeal at one or more individuals separately, focusing on some aspect of their relationship to the crowd. 
    • Bandwagon
    • Appeal to Vanity
    • Appeal to Snobbery
  11. Fallacies of Relevance - Argument Against the Person
    • Argumentum ad Hominem
    • An informal fallacy that occurs when an arguer verbally attacks the person of a second arguer for the purpose of discrediting his or her argument
    • Ad Hominem Abusive, Ad Hominem Circumstantial, Tu Quoque
  12. Fallacies of Relevance - Argument Against the Person - Ad Hominem Abusive
    A variety of the argument against the person fallacy that occurs when an arguer verbally abuses a second arguer for the purpose of discrediting that person's argument
  13. Fallacies of Relevance - Argument Against the Person - Ad Hominem Circumstantial
    A variety of the argument against the person fallacy that occurs when an arguer cites circumstances that affect a second arguer, for the purpose of discrediting that person's argument
  14. Fallacies of Relevance - Argument Against the Person - Tu Quoque
    A variety of the argument against the person fallacy that occurs when an arguer shifts the burden of guilt onto a second arguer for the purpose of discrediting his or her argument
  15. Fallacies of Relevance - Accident
    An informal fallacy that occurs when a general rule is wrongly applied to an atypical specific case
  16. Fallacies of Relevance - Straw Man Fallacy
    A fallacy that occurs when the arguer misinterprets an opponent's position for the purpose of more easily attacking it, demolishes the misinterpreted argument, and then proceeds to conclude that the original argument has been demolished
  17. Fallacies of Relevance - Missing the Point
    • Ignoratio Elenchi
    • An informal fallacy that occurs when the premises of an argument entails one particular conclusion but a completely different conclusion is actually drawn
  18. Fallacies of Relevance - Red Herring
    A fallacy that occurs when the arguer diverts the attention of the reader or listener by addressing extraneous issues and finishes by presuming that some conclusion has been established
  19. Fallacies of Weak Induction
    A group of informal fallacies that occur because the connection between the premises and conclusion is not strong enough to support the conclusion
  20. Types of Fallacies of Weak Induction
    • Appeal to Unqualified Authority
    • Appeal to Ignorance
    • Hasty Generalization
    • False Cause
    • Slippery Slope
    • Weak Analogy
  21. Fallacies of Weak Induction - Appeal to Unqualified Authority
    An informal fallacy that occurs when an arguer cites the testimony of an unqualified authority in support of a conclusion
  22. Fallacies of Weak Induction - Appeal to Ignorance
    An informal fallacy that occurs when an arguer uses the fact that nothing has been proved about something as evidence in support of some conclusion about that thing
  23. Fallacies of Weak Induction - Hasty Generalization
    An informal fallacy that occurs when a general conclusion is drawn from atypical specific cases
  24. Fallacies of Weak Induction - False Cause
    An informal fallacy that occurs when the conclusion of an argument depends on some imagined causal connection that probably does not exist
  25. Fallacies of Weak Induction - Slippery Slope
    An informal fallacy that occurs when the conclusion of an argument rests on an alleged chain reaction, and there is not sufficient reason to think that the chain reaction will actually take place
  26. Fallacies of Weak Induction - Weak Analogy
    An informal fallacy that occurs when the conclusion of an argument depends on an analogy that is not strong enough to support the conclusion
  27. Fallacies of Presumption
    A group of informal fallacies that occur when the premises of an argument presume what they purport to prove
  28. Types of Fallacies of Presumption
    • Begging the question
    • Complex Question
    • False Dichotomy
    • Suppressed Evidence
  29. Fallacies of Presumption - Begging the Question
    An informal fallacy that occurs when the arguer creates the illusion that inadequate premises provide adequate support for the conclusion, by leaving out a key premise, restating the conclusion as a premise, or by reasoning in a circle
  30. Fallacies of Presumption - Complex Question
    An informal fallacy that occurs when a single question that is really two or more questions is asked, and a single answer is applied to both questions
  31. Fallacies of Presumption - False Dichotomy
    • An informal fallacy that is committed when an arguer presents two nonjointly exhaustive alternatives as if they were jointly exhaustive and eliminates one, leaving the other as the conclusion
    • (when a disjunctive <"either...or"> premise presents two unlikely alternatives as if they were the only ones available, then eliminates the undesirable alternative, leaving the desirable one as the conclusion)
  32. Fallacies of Presumption - Suppressed Evidence
    A fallacy that occurs when the arguer ignores relevant evidence that outweighs the presented evidence and entails a very different conclusion
  33. Suppressed Evidence & Begging the Question Arguments
    • Suppressed Evidence fallacy is similar to the Begging the Question fallacy in which the arguer leaves out a key premise
    • Suppressed Evidence leaves out a premise that requires a different conclusion
    • The form of Begging the Question leaves out a premise that is needed to support the stated conclusion
  34. Fallacies of Ambiguity
    A group of informal fallacies that occur because of an ambiguity in the premises or conclusion
  35. Types of Fallacies of Ambiguity
    • Equivocation
    • Amphiboly
  36. Fallacies of Ambiguity - Equivocation
    • An informal fallacy that occurs because some word or group of words is used either implicitly or explicitly in two different senses
    • These arguments are either invalid or have a false premise
    • In either case, these arguments are unsound
  37. Fallacies of Ambiguity - Amphiboly
    • An informal fallacy that occurs when the conclusion of an argument depends on the interpretation of a statement that is ambiguous owing to some structural defect
    • Involves syntactical ambiguity (a missing comma, an ambiguous antecedent of a pronoun, careless arrangement of words, etc)
  38. Amphiboly & Equivocation Arguments
    • Equivocation is always traced to ambiguity in the meaning of a word or phrase
    • Amphiboly involves a syntactical ambiguity in a statement
    • Amphiboly usually involves a mistakes made by the arguer in interpreting an ambiguous statement made by someone else
    • Equivocation is typically due to the arguer's own work
  39. Fallacies of Grammatical Analogy
    A group of informal fallacies that occur because of a grammatical similarity to other arguments that are nonfallacious
  40. Types of Fallacies of Grammatical Analogy
    • Composition
    • Division
  41. Fallacies of Grammatical Analogy - Composition
    An informal fallacy that occurs when the conclusion of an argument depends on the erroneous transference of an attribute from the parts of something onto the whole
  42. Fallacies of Grammatical Analogy - Division
    An informal fallacy that occurs when the conclusion of an argument depends on the erroneous transference of an attribute from a whole (or class) onto its parts (or members)

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