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What is child development?
Changes that take place from conception through adolescence
4 major themes in child development
- Nature and nurture
- Role of neuroscience
- Diversity & multiculturalism
- Positive development & resilience
5 Major theories in child development
- Behavioral and social learning
What do psychoanalytic theories focus on?
Structure of personality and how conscious and unconscious thoughts influence behavior and development
2 psychoanalytic theorists
- Id: primitive instincts, completely unconscious
- Ego: rational thought
- Superego: ethics, morals, conscience
Freud's 5 stages of psychosexual development
Psychosocial theory: focused more on healthy child development
Erikson's 8 stages of psychosocial development
- Trust - mistrust: feeding
- Autonomy - shame & doubt: toilet training
- Initiative - guilt: exploration
- Industry - inferiority: school
- Identity - identity confusion: social relationships
- Intimacy - isolation: relationships
- Generativity - stagnation: work & parenthood
- Integrity - despair: reflection on life
What do behavioral theories focus on?
- Observable conditions and behaviors
- Development comes from learning
- Importance of environment
Classical conditioning with dogs
Little Albert experiment
Operant conditioning: learning comes from reinforcement and punishment
- Social learning theory: children learn by observing and imitating
- Bobo doll
What do cognitive theories focus on?
Focus on how children adjust their own understanding as they explore the world; how their thinking impacts their actions
- Schema: organized behavior & mental structure
- Assimilation: application of schema to something
- Equilibrium: arises if schema works
- Disequilibrium: when schema doesn't work
- Accommodation: adjust schema
Sociocultural theory: language is powerful tool
What is information processing?
How children perceive, store, and retrieve information
What do biological theories/ ethology focus on?
Adaptive and survival value of behaviors
Survival of the fittest
Imprinting: critical period
- Importance of culture and changing social environments
- 3 components: Person, context of behavior, processes of change
What do dynamic systems focus on?
- Uses math and physics to understand development
- Nonlinear connections
3 research designs
What is descriptive research?
Attempt to describe behavior with observations, questionnaires, case studies...
What is correlational research?
Attempt to determine the strength of a relationship between two behaviors
What is experimental research?
- Experimental group: receives treatment
- Control group: no treatment
What is a Genotype?
Genetic potential that a person in herits
What is a Phenotype?
A person's observable characteristics and behavior
What are Gametes?
Egg and sperm
What are Genes?
Basic units of heredity
What are Chromosomes?
Larger units of genes
What are Alleles?
Different forms of a gene
What is the Human genome?
Entire set of genes
What is Mitosis?
- Genetic material within the cell duplicates itself to make 2 identical copies
- Copy division
What is Meiosis?
- One chromosome from each pair is randomly selected for each egg and sperm
- Results in 23 single chromosomes
- Reduction division
What are Automsomes?
- 22 of the paired chromosomes are similar
- Not a sex chromosome
What is a Karyotype?
Pictorial representation of an individual's chromosomes
What are Monozygotic twins (MZ)?
- Identical twins
- 1 zygote divides
What are Dizygotic twins (DZ)?
- Fraternal twins
- 2 eggs fertilized by 2 different sperm
What are Half-identical twins?
1 egg divides and is fertilized by 2 differed sperm
What is Homozygous?
2 alleles of a gene are identical
What is Heterozygous?
2 alleles of a gene are different
What is Polygenic?
Traits determined by more than one gene
What are Dominant-recessive relationships?
2 recessive alleles
What are Dominant gene diseases?
Only 1 dominant allele
What are Recessive gene diseases?
2 recessive alleles
What are Mutations?
Changes in genetic material
3 Gene disorders
- Huntington's disease: dominant gene.
- Sickle cell anemia and PKU: 2 recessive alleles.
- Fragile X syndrome: associated with genes on the twenty-third pair of chromosomes.
What is a Chromosome disorder/ abnormality?
Down's syndrome or Trisomy 21, an extra 21st chromosome
2 Sex chromosome abnormalities
- Klinefelter syndrome: extra X chromosome
- Turner syndrome: missing X chromosome
4 theoretical models of genes and environment working together
- Range of reaction
- Genetic-environment correlation
Theorist of Range of Reaction
Theorist of Canalization
Theorist of Genetic-environmental correlation
Theorist of Epigenesis
What is the Range of Reaction Theory?
- How much we achieve in a given domain of behavior
- Genes - give us the range of abilities
- Environment - influences where on that range we land
- Example: Kid's IQ is higher in stimulating environment
What is the Canalization Theory?
- Child is a ball rolling down developmental paths
- Early on, development is less susceptible to environmental forces
- Choice points - critical stages in development
What is the Gene-environment correlation Theory?
Genes and environments aren't independent from one another
What is the Epigenesis Theory?
Behavioral outcome depends on genes that must be activated by life experiences
How is heritability estimated?
- Twin studies
- Adoption studies
3 stages of prenatal development
Age in Germinal stage
Age in Embryonic stage
Age in Fetal stage
What happens during Germinal stage?
- Zygote travels from fallopian tube to uterus
- Differentiation into two layers- trophoblast & blastocyst
- Zygot implants in uterine wall
What is Trophoblast?
Outer layer becomes placenta, amniotic sack, and umbilical cord
What is Blastocyst?
Inner layer becomes fetus
What happens during Embryonic stage?
- Blastocyst becomes ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
- Embryo folds over
What happens during the Fetal stage?
- Reflexes appear
- Fat develops
- Lungs mature
What is a teratogen?
- Substance that disrupts development and causes birth defects
- Drugs, disease, environmental exposure
Other factors that impact fetus
- Environmental hazards
3 stages of birth
- Dilation: contractions
- Delivery: baby comes
- Afterbirth: placenta
2 birth complications
- Malpresentation: may do a C section
- Fetal distress: no oxygen
What is used to assess the baby after birth?
3 parts of gene-environment correlation theory
- Active (niche-picking)