Child Psychology Exam 1

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nthor
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Child Psychology Exam 1
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2013-09-26 18:57:55
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Exam 1
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  1. What is child development?
    Changes that take place from conception through adolescence
  2. 4 major themes in child development
    • Nature and nurture
    • Role of neuroscience
    • Diversity & multiculturalism
    • Positive development & resilience
  3. 5 Major theories in child development
    • Psychoanalytic
    • Behavioral and social learning
    • Cognitive
    • Biological
    • Systems
  4. What do psychoanalytic theories focus on?
    Structure of personality and how conscious and unconscious thoughts influence behavior and development
  5. 2 psychoanalytic theorists
    • Freud
    • Erikson
  6. Freud's theory
    • Id: primitive instincts, completely unconscious
    • Ego: rational thought
    • Superego: ethics, morals, conscience
  7. Freud's 5 stages of psychosexual development
    • Oral
    • Anal
    • Phallic
    • Latency
    • Genital
  8. Erikson's theory
    Psychosocial theory: focused more on healthy child development
  9. Erikson's 8 stages of psychosocial development
    • Trust - mistrust: feeding
    • Autonomy - shame & doubt: toilet training
    • Initiative - guilt: exploration
    • Industry - inferiority: school
    • Identity - identity confusion: social relationships
    • Intimacy - isolation: relationships
    • Generativity - stagnation: work & parenthood
    • Integrity - despair: reflection on life
  10. What do behavioral theories focus on?
    • Observable conditions and behaviors
    • Development comes from learning
    • Importance of environment
  11. 3 behavioral theorists
    • Watson
    • Skinner
    • Bandura
  12. Pavlov's theory
    Classical conditioning with dogs
  13. Watson's theory
    Little Albert experiment
  14. Skinner's theory
    Operant conditioning: learning comes from reinforcement and punishment
  15. Bandura's theory
    • Social learning theory: children learn by observing and imitating
    • Bobo doll
  16. What do cognitive theories focus on?
    Focus on how children adjust their own understanding as they explore the world; how their thinking impacts their actions
  17. 2 cognitive theorists
    • Piaget
    • Vygotsky
  18. Piaget's theory
    • Schema: organized behavior & mental structure
    • Assimilation: application of schema to something
    • Equilibrium: arises if schema works
    • Disequilibrium: when schema doesn't work
    • Accommodation: adjust schema
  19. Vygotsky's theory
    Sociocultural theory: language is powerful tool
  20. What is information processing?
    How children perceive, store, and retrieve information
  21. What do biological theories/ ethology focus on?
    Adaptive and survival value of behaviors
  22. 2 biological theorists
    • Darwin
    • Lorenz
  23. Darwin's theory
    Survival of the fittest
  24. Lorenz's theory
    Imprinting: critical period
  25. Bronfenbrenner's theory
    • Importance of culture and changing social environments
    • 3 components: Person, context of behavior, processes of change
  26. What do dynamic systems focus on?
    • Uses math and physics to understand development
    • Nonlinear connections
  27. 3 research designs
    • Descriptive
    • Correlational
    • Experimental
  28. What is descriptive research?
    Attempt to describe behavior with observations, questionnaires, case studies...
  29. What is correlational research?
    Attempt to determine the strength of a relationship between two behaviors
  30. What is experimental research?
    • Experimental group: receives treatment
    • Control group: no treatment
  31. What is a Genotype?
    Genetic potential that a person in herits
  32. What is a Phenotype?
    A person's observable characteristics and behavior
  33. What are Gametes?
    Egg and sperm
  34. What are Genes?
    Basic units of heredity
  35. What are Chromosomes?
    Larger units of genes
  36. What are Alleles?
    Different forms of a gene
  37. What is the Human genome?
    Entire set of genes
  38. What is Mitosis?
    • Genetic material within the cell duplicates itself to make 2 identical copies
    • Copy division
  39. What is Meiosis?
    • One chromosome from each pair is randomly selected for each egg and sperm
    • Results in 23 single chromosomes
    • Reduction division
  40. What are Automsomes?
    • 22 of the paired chromosomes are similar
    • Not a sex chromosome
  41. What is a Karyotype?
    Pictorial representation of an individual's chromosomes
  42. What are Monozygotic twins (MZ)?
    • Identical twins
    • 1 zygote divides
  43. What are Dizygotic twins (DZ)?
    • Fraternal twins
    • 2 eggs fertilized by 2 different sperm
  44. What are Half-identical twins?
    1 egg divides and is fertilized by 2 differed sperm
  45. What is Homozygous?
    2 alleles of a gene are identical
  46. What is Heterozygous?
    2 alleles of a gene are different
  47. What is Polygenic?
    Traits determined by more than one gene
  48. What are Dominant-recessive relationships?
    2 recessive alleles
  49. What are Dominant gene diseases?
    Only 1 dominant allele
  50. What are Recessive gene diseases?
    2 recessive alleles
  51. What are Mutations?
    Changes in genetic material
  52. 3 Gene disorders
    • Huntington's disease: dominant gene.
    • Sickle cell anemia and PKU: 2 recessive alleles.
    • Fragile X syndrome: associated with genes on the twenty-third pair of chromosomes.
  53. What is a Chromosome disorder/ abnormality?
    Down's syndrome or Trisomy 21, an extra 21st chromosome
  54. 2 Sex chromosome abnormalities
    • Klinefelter syndrome: extra X chromosome
    • Turner syndrome: missing X chromosome
  55. 4 theoretical models of genes and environment working together
    • Range of reaction
    • Canalization
    • Genetic-environment correlation
    • Epigenesis
  56. Theorist of Range of Reaction
    Gottesman
  57. Theorist of Canalization
    Waddington
  58. Theorist of Genetic-environmental correlation
    Plomin
  59. Theorist of Epigenesis
    Gottlieb
  60. What is the Range of Reaction Theory?
    • How much we achieve in a given domain of behavior
    • Genes - give us the range of abilities
    • Environment - influences where on that range we land
    • Example: Kid's IQ is higher in stimulating environment
  61. What is the Canalization Theory?
    • Child is a ball rolling down developmental paths
    • Early on, development is less susceptible to environmental forces
    • Choice points - critical stages in development
  62. What is the Gene-environment correlation Theory?
    Genes and environments aren't independent from one another
  63. What is the Epigenesis Theory?
    Behavioral outcome depends on genes that must be activated by life experiences
  64. How is heritability estimated?
    • Twin studies
    • Adoption studies
  65. 3 stages of prenatal development
    • Germinal
    • Embryonic
    • Fetal
  66. Age in Germinal stage
    0-2 weeks
  67. Age in Embryonic stage
    2-8 weeks
  68. Age in Fetal stage
    9-40 weeks
  69. What happens during Germinal stage?
    • Zygote travels from fallopian tube to uterus
    • Differentiation into two layers- trophoblast & blastocyst
    • Zygot implants in uterine wall
  70. What is Trophoblast?
    Outer layer becomes placenta, amniotic sack, and umbilical cord
  71. What is Blastocyst?
    Inner layer becomes fetus
  72. What happens during Embryonic stage?
    • Blastocyst becomes ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
    • Embryo folds over
  73. What happens during the Fetal stage?
    • Reflexes appear
    • Fat develops
    • Lungs mature
    • Birth
  74. What is a teratogen?
    • Substance that disrupts development and causes birth defects
    • Drugs, disease, environmental exposure
  75. Other factors that impact fetus
    • Age
    • Malnutrition
    • Stress
    • Drugs
    • Diseases
    • Environmental hazards
  76. 3 stages of birth
    • Dilation: contractions
    • Delivery: baby comes
    • Afterbirth: placenta
  77. 2 birth complications
    • Malpresentation: may do a C section
    • Fetal distress: no oxygen
  78. What is used to assess the baby after birth?
    Apgar Scale
  79. 3 parts of gene-environment correlation theory
    • Passive
    • Evocative
    • Active (niche-picking)

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