A&P Ch 6&7
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Bone cells are arranged in concentric circles around longitudinal tubes called....
Bones consist of:
Minerals that harden matrix of bone:
calcium & phosphate
Shapes of bones:
The enlarged ends of a long bone:
- (2) epiphyges
- (2) epiphygis
The shaft of long bone is covered with____.
The functional cell in mature compact bone is the:
The structural unit of bone is ________________.
osteon (Haversian system)
Tubes of bone matrix
In a living bone, what is contained in a lacuna?
Matrix of osseous tissue (organic)
Matrix of osseous tissue (inorganic)
- -calcium carbonate
- -other minerals
In bone tissue, minerals resist _______ and _______ resists _____.
compression; collagen, tension
axial skeleton consists of ______, _______ and _______.
skull, vertebral column, and rib-cage
The joint between the parietal bones and the occipital bone is the:
The sagittal suture is located between the _______ and_______ bones.
parietal & parietal
The glenoid cavity is where the ______.
humerus articulates with the scapula
Joint that is the greatest degree of movement.
What are the two types of bone tissue?
compact and spongy
The _______ _______ makes up most of the bone's length and is composed of compact bone most superficially.
diaphysis or shaft
Name the canals that, in compact bone, that are for the passage of vessels and nerves from the outside of the bone to its interior central canals.
In embryos, the skeleton is primarily made of _______, but in the adult most of the skeleton is _______.
In a comminuted fracture the:
bone breaks into many fragments
In intramembranous ossification, the membrane forms bone from _______.
fibrous connective tissue membranes
Single vertebrae are separated by _______, which cushion the vertebrae and absorb shocks.
The spinal curvatures in the _______ and _______ regions are referred to as primary curvatures because they are present in the late fetus and infant.
In endochonral ossification, bone tissue replaces _____.
These bones experience intramembrane ossification
cranial and clavicle
For long bone growth, the cells of the epiphyseal plate proximal to the resting cartilage arrange in 3 zones:
- 1) growth
- 2) transformation
- 3) osteogenic
bone growth increasing in length
bone growth increasing in width
lattice network of spongy bone
stages of healing fractures:
- 1. fracture hematoma
- 2. soft callus
- 3. hard callus
- 4. remodeling
Common types of fractures (9)
- 1. open, displaced
- 2. transverse, nondisplaced
- 3. oblique, nondisplaced
- 4. greenstick
- 5. comminuted
- 6. linear
- 7. Potts (ankle)
- 8. Spiral
- 9. Colles (wrist)
bones losses mass and becomes brittle (loss of organic matrix and minerals)
best treatment for osteoporosis is prevention, taking ______mg of _____ a day
1000mg of calcium
How much Ca does human body contain?
1200-1400g, 99% stored as bone minerals
the bone at the rear and base of skull
hole in skull that hold spinal cord
skull rests on atlas at _______
in the skull, the _____ canal transmits _____ nerve, suppressing the tongue
hypoglossal & hypoglossal
What lines mark the neck muscles?
The keystone bone
In the body of the sphenoid is located ______.
- sella turcica
- pituitary gland
the sinus located near the sphenoid bone
the paranasal sinuses
The neural arch of vertebra.
bone formed in tendon that passes over joint
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