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7 functions of integumentary system?
-vit D production
-detection of stimuli
how many layers does the integumentary system have?
what are the 2 layers of integumentary system?
what is the epidermis?
- thick keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
what are the 4 cell types of the epidermis?
epidermis-4 cell types- Keratinocytes (2)
-made of keratin
-deep layer is mitotic
epidermis-4 cell types- what are melanocytes? (2)
-basal layer of epidermis
-manufacture protein melanin
epidermis-4 cell types- Melanocyte-how is melanin trasnferred?
it is transferred from one melanocyte to keratinocyte in between the sun and nucleus to prevent the nucleus from being damaged by UV lights
epidermis-4 cell types- Langerhans cells (2)
- -it is manufactured in bone marrow
- *they make their way to epidermis
epidermis-4 cell types- merkel cells
- -sensory receptor cells
- *they are assocaited with a nerve ending
how often is a new epidermis generated?
layers of epidermis- stratum germinativum (basale) (3)
layers of epidermis- Stratum spinosum
-spiny projections artifact
***it is above stratum germinativum basale
layers of epidermis- Stratum granulosum (3)
- -contains water proofing layer
- *this prevents water from getting into skin
-last cells to be nourished by blood indirectly
layers of epidermis- stratum lucidum
- -only present in thick skin
- *palms and soles
layers of epidermis- stratum corneum (3)
-this is the part of epidermis that flakes off
how is the dermis bound together by? (3)
**Synthesized by fibroblasts
dermis- description of papillary layer? (4)
-contains blood vessels
-projections and indentations of papillae
- -dermal ridges
- *palms of hand, soles, and feet
- **thiis makes foot and hand prints
layers of epidermis- reticular layer (4)
-has collagen bundles
- -has elastin
- *it gives it its flexibility
- -this is where stretch marks occur
- **which is collagen fibers breaking
color,pigments- where is melanin synthesized?
color,pigments- melanin- what are freckles and moles?
concentrations of melanin
color,pigments- what 4 colors can melanin be?
color,pigments- does melanin vary by racial/ethinic?
yes, people are darker around the equator
color,pigments- 3 types of color/pigments
- can give off the color on skin depending what one eats
color,pigments- hemoglobin- what happens if a person is redder than sombody?
the persn that is redder is healthier.
appendages- what is hair?
- layers of dead cells
what is hair synthesized from?
appendages-what is hard keratin? (3)
-has sulfur bonds
appendages-What does the shape of a shaft determine?
shape of hair
appendages--shape of shaft- flat
appendages--shape of shaft- oval
appendages--shape of shaft- round
straight and course
appendages- how many layers does a shaft have?
appendages- is the root of the hair visible?
no, it is embedded in the skin
appendages- what determins the color of hair?
melanocytes at the base of follicle
appendages- where does the hair of the shaft extend to?
appendages- hair follicle- what is the hair bulb?
this is where grwth happens in the amtrix
appendages- hair follicle- what is root hair plexus?
- nerve that wraps around the entire hair shaft.
- *it is important for sensation
appendages- hair follicle- what does the papillae do?
provides blood supply for the matrix
appendages- hair follicle- ehat is the arrector pili muscle?
this causes goosbumps
appendages- what are nails?
modification of exsiting epidermis
appendages- nails- what makes up the nails
- -hard keratin
- *it is stratum corneum
appendages- nails- where is the nail matrix?
- stratum germinativum of the epidermis
- *look at diagram
glands- what is the function of sweat?
is temperature regulation
glands-sweat- where is the eccrine located ? (2)
-open on much of the body
-concentrated in skin of palms, forehead, and soles of feet
glands-sweat-eccrine- description of eccrine? (2)
glands-sweat- what is the pH of sweat?
glands-sweat- Sweat AND blood
sweat acts as a filtrate of blood
glands-sweat- what 6 things does sweat contain?
-some vit C
glands-sweat- what controls sweat?
sympathetic nervous system
glands-sweat- what are the 2 merocrine cells called?
glands-sweat- where are apocrine located?
axillary and anogenital regions
glands-sweat- which mercrine gland is larger betwee the 2?
glands-sweat- where does the apocrine empty out its ducts?
into hair follicles
glands-sweat-which lie deeper into the dermis between the 2 merocrine glands?
glands-sweat-apocrine- what do apocrine secrete? (3)
glands-sweat- is apocrine odorless?
yes, but bacteria on the skin causes the body odor
glands-sweat- when do apocrine begin their function?
glands-sweat- are apocrine sweat glands involve in temepreature regulation?
glands-sweat- what system controls the apocrine?
sympatheitc nervous system
glands-sweat- what are ceruminois glands?
wax-producing at the external ear canal
glands-sweat- what are mammary glands?
they secrete milk
glands-sebaceous- what are sebaceous glands?
alveolar holocrine glands
glands-sebaceous- where are the sebaceous glands located?
everywehre but palsm of hands and soles of feet
glands-sebaceous- relationship between sebaceous glands and hair follicles
sebaceous galnds are outgrowths of hair follicles
glands-sebaceous- what do they secrret?
glands-sebaceous- waht happens if the ducts are small and narrow?
difficult to get sebum out and sets up growth of acne
glands-sebaceous what happens if ducts are wide and large?
person will not be prone to having acne