Science Chapter 1

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  1. Ecosystem
    All of the interacting parts of a biological community and its environment.

    E.g. forest, pond, arctic, sea, tundra, rain forest.
  2. Sustainable ecosystem
    An ecosystem that is capable of withstanding pressure and giving support to a variety of organisms.

    E.g. A lake where the number of fish that reach spawning age each year are greater than the ones that are killed/eaten that year.
  3. Biotic
    The living parts of an ecosystem.

    E.g. Animals, plants, insects, bacteria.
  4. Abiotic
    The non-living parts of an ecosystem.

    E.g. Soil, water, sunlight, temperature.
  5. Lithosphere
    • The hard part of the Earth's surface.
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  6. Hydrosphere
    All the water found on Earth, including lakes, oceans, and groundwater

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  7. Atmosphere
    The layer of gasses above the Earth's surface.

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  8. Biosphere
    The regions of Earth where living organisms exist.

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  9. Nutrients
    Chemicals that are essential to living things and are cycled through ecosystems.

    E.g. Water, fats or lipids, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals.
  10. Eutrophication
    A process in which nutrient levels in aquatic ecosystems increase, leading to an increase on the populations of primary producers.

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  11. Photosynthesis
    A process that changes solar energy into chemical energy.

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  12. Trophic level
    A category of organisms that is defined by how they gain their energy

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  13. Biomass
    The total mass of living organisms in a defined group or area.

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  14. Trophic Efficiency
    A measure of the amount of energy or biomass transferred from one trophic level to the next higher trophic level.
  15. Bio-accumulation
    A process in which an organism ingests materials, especially toxins, faster than it eliminates them.

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  16. Bio-magnification
    A process in which the concentration of ingested toxins increases as it moves from one trophic level to the next.

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  17. Cellular respiration
    A process that releases energy from organic molecules, especially carbohydrates, in the presence of oxygen.

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  18. Fermentation
    A process that releases energy from organic molecules, especially carbohydrates, in the absence of oxygen.

    E.g. alchol fermentation--where sugar molecules from fruit or barley,grains fermented to beer,wine,rum etc.
  19. Greenhouse gas
    An atmospheric gas that prevents heat from leaving the atmosphere, thus increasing the temperature of the atmosphere.

    E.g. Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous oxide (N2O), Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6), Chlorinated fluorocarbons (CFCs)
  20. Greenhouse effect
    The warming  of Earth as a result of the greenhouse gases, which trap some of the energy that would otherwise leave Earth.

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  21. Acid Precipitation
    Rain, snow, or fog that is unnaturally acidic (pH under 5.6) due to gases in the atmosphere that react with water to form acids.

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Science Chapter 1
2013-09-19 01:39:23

Science chapter 1flash cards
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