"Rapid, unthinking responses based on unique assumptions about ourselves & the world. These assumptions may be realistic or distorted. Common distortions include focusing on negative details & catastrophizing, which is assuming the worst possible outcome."
A treatment method that is concerned with patterns of behavior rather than inner motivations. Maladaptive responses are replaced with adaptive responses
A technique for gaining control over unconscious body functions such as blood pressure and heartbeat to achieve relaxation or the relief from stress-related physical symptoms; involves the use of self-monitoring equipment.
Bringing about involuntary behavior or reflexes through conditioned responses to stimuli
Inaccurate & irrational automatic thoughts or ideas that lead to false assumptions & misinterpretations
cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
An effective therapeutic modality that seeks to identify negative & irrational patterns of thought & challenge them based on rational evidence & thoughts
involves pairing a behavior with a condition that reinforces or diminishes the behavior's occurrence
Denoting experiences that are within a person's awareness
"The tendency of the nurse (therapist, social worker) to displace onto the patient feelings that are a response to people in the nurse's past. Strong positive or strong negative reactions to a patient may indicate countertransference"
"unconscious Intrapsychic processes used to ward off anxiety by preventing conscious awareness of threatening feelings. Defense mechanisms can be used in a healthy or a not-so-healthy manner. Examples are repression, projection, sublimation, denial, and regression."
"The one's sense of self & provides such functions as problem solving, mobilization of defense mechanisms, reality testing, & the capability of functioning independently. The ego is said to be the mediator between one's primitive drives (the id) & internalized parental & social prohibitions (the superego)"
"In operant conditioning, extinction occurs when reinforcement no longer results in a given behavior or response; in classical conditioning, extinction occurs when the stimulus no longer produces a response"
The id is the source of all primitive drives & instincts & is considered to be the reservoir of all psychic energy
A therapeutic modality that emphasizes what goes on between people. The basis of the therapy is on building interpersonal skills & correcting faulty processes of interacting
A general term for any therapeutic setting that focuses on control of the environment (both physical & social) to effect positive change
"Increasing the probability of a behavior by removing unpleasant consequences; it is not punishment. This concept is related to positive reinforcement, which rewards or gives in to a specific behavior. (e.g., A mouse that learns to press a lever to stop a shock has undergone negative reinforcement)"
A type of behavior modification in which voluntary behaviors are increased or decreased through reinforcement or punishment
"The presentation of a reward immediately following a behavior, making the behavior more likely to occur in the future"
unconscious thoughts (including memory) that are available for retrieval to the conscious at any time
"a therapeutic modality based on classical psychoanalysis, but with less focus on the early development of pathology. It uses free association, dream analysis, transference, & countertransference. The therapist is actively involved & interacts with the client in the here & now."
an unpleasant consequence
something that causes a behavior to occur more often
"the superego is the internal representative of the value, ideals, & moral standards of society. The superego is said to be the moral arm of the personality"
the experiencing of thoughts & feelings toward a person (often the therapist) that were originally held toward a significant person in one's past. Transference is a valuable tool used by therapists in psychoanalytical psychotherapy
"Repressed memories, feelings, thoughts, or wishes that are not available to the conscious mind. Usually such memories, feelings, thoughts, or wishes harbor intense anxiety and can greatly influence an individual's behavior."