1st big exam

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1st big exam
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  1. Microbes, also called microorganisms
    are minute living things that individually are usually too small to be seen with the unaided eye.
  2. genus (plural: genera)
    is the first name and is always capitalized;
  3. specific epithet
    (species name) follows and is not capitalized
  4. Bacteria
    (singular: bacterium)
    • are relatively simple, single-celled (unicellular) organisms. Because their genetic
    • material is not enclosed in a special nuclear membrane
  5. prokaryotes
    • from Greek words meaning prenu- cleus.
    • Prokaryotes include both bacteria and archaea
  6. Amebae move by
    • using extensions of their cytoplasm called
    • pseudopods (false feet)
  7. Algae (singular: alga)
    • are photosynthetic eukaryotes with a wide variety of shapes and both sexual and
    • asexual reproductive forms
  8. Animal parasites
    • are eukaryotes. The two major groups of parasitic worms are the flatworms and the
    • round- worms, collectively called helminths
  9. cell theory
    • the theory that all living things are composed
    • of cells. Subsequent investigations into the structure and function of cells were based on this theory.
  10. spontaneous generation
    • the second half of the nineteenth century,
    • many scientists and philosophers believed that some forms of life could arise
    • spon- taneously from nonliving matter; pyogenus example are streptococcus which
    • is the cause of strepthroat.
  11. biogenesis
    the claim that living cells can arise only from preexisting living cells.
  12. fermentation is used to
    • make wine and beer. Souring and spoil- age are caused by different microorganisms
    • called bacteria. In the presence of air, bacteria change the alcohol into
    • vinegar
  13. pasteurization
    • is now commonly used to reduce spoilage and
    • kill potentially harmful bacteria in milk as well as in some alcoholic drinks.
  14. germ theory of disease
    • The germ theory was a difficult concept for
    • many people to accept at that time because for centuries disease was believed
    • to be punishment for an individual’s crimes or misdeeds. When the inhabitants
    • of an entire village became ill, people often blamed the disease on demons
    • appearing as foul odors from sewage or on poisonous vapors from swamps.
  15. Koch’s postulates
    • a sequence of experimental steps for directly relating a specific microbe to a
    • specific disease
  16. The protection from disease provided by
    • vaccination (or by recovery from the disease  is
    • called immunity
  17. Treatment of disease by using chemical substances is called
    chemotherapy.
  18. Chemicals produced naturally by bacteria and
    fungi to act against other microorganisms are called
    antibiotics.
  19. Chemotherapeutic agents
    • prepared from chemicals in the laboratory are
    • called synthetic drugs.
  20. Mycology
    • the study of fungi, includes medical,
    • agricultural, and ecological branches
  21. Parasitology
    • is the study of protozoa and parasitic worms. Because many parasitic worms are
    • large enough to be seen with the unaided eye, they have been known for
    • thousands of years
  22. genomics
    the study of all of an organism’s genes
  23. Immunology
    the study of immunity
  24. The study of viruses
    virology
  25. microbial genetic
    studies the mechanisms by which microorganisms inherit traits.
  26. r normal microbiota
    • The normal microbiota not only do us no harm, but also in some cases can actually
    • benefit us. For example, some normal microbiota protect us against disease by
    • preventing the overgrowth of harmful microbes, and others produce useful
    • substances such as vitamin K and some B vitamins.
  27. resistance
    the ability to ward off diseases
  28. emerging infectious diseases EID
    • have cropped up in recent years. These are diseases that are new or changing and are
    • increasing
  29. H1N1 influenza (flu)
    • also known as swine flu, is a type of influenza caused by a new virus called
    • influenza H1N1. H1N1 was first detected in the United States in april 2009.
  30. Avian influenza A (H5N1)
    or bird flu,
  31. methicillin-resistant S. aureus, called MRSA
    • emerged and became endemic in many hospitals,
    • leading to increasing use of vancomycin.
  32. West Nile encephalitis (WNE)
    is inflammation of the brain caused by West Nile virus
  33. bovine spongiform encephalopathy, also called BSE or mad cow disease
    • that the source of disease was cattle feed prepared from sheep infected with their
    • own version of the disease.
  34. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    is a human disease also caused by a prion.
  35. flesh-eating bacteria
    • were reported on the front pages of major newspapers. The bacteria are more
    • correctly named invasive group A
  36. Bacteria outnumber human cells
    10: 1
  37. Algae release
    oxygen
  38. Family of yellow fever is called
    Flaviviridae
  39. First microbes were called?
    animalcules
  40. Gonorrhea is caused by
    Neisseria gonorrheae
  41. halophile means
    high salt
  42. Hanatavirus is carried by
    rodents & secreted in their urine & feces
  43. Hanatvirus can cause
    HPS (Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome) or HFRS (Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome)
  44. Hantavirus is aka
    Sin Nombre virus
  45. Harmful fungi
    Stachybotrys chartarum (black mold
  46. How long has bacteria been around?
    3.5 billion years
  47. How many people were had a MRSA infection in 2007?
    880,000
  48. How was abiogenesis dispelled?
    Broth-filled flasks with swan necks open to the air. When neck was in place, particles (and microbes) fell to the neck bottom. No growth occurred. When neck was broken, particles fell directly into broth. Growth occurred.
  49. Transmission electron microscopes allow is to see
    viruses
  50. Virions are
    infectious virus particles
  51. Viruses "mature" into
    virions
  52. Viruses are different because
    they are not technically living
  53. Viruses are not made of
    cells, but are highly organized
  54. Viruses can only be seen with
    an electron microscope
  55. Viruses have
    either DNA or RNA
  56. Viruses rely on hosts for
    reproduction, energy
  57. What did Dr. Oliver Wendell Homes notice?
    mothers that gave birth at home got less infections than the mothers who gave birth at the hospital
  58. What do protease inhibitors do?
    they do not allow any protein modification (cutting), will stop the onset of AIDS
  59. What is Abiogenesis
    life springing from mixture of things
  60. Who was the main suspect in the anthrax scandal?
    Dr. Bruce Ivins
  61. Who invented the first microscope & observed the first microbes?
    Antoni von Leeuwenhoek
  62. Who introduced Koch's postulates?
    Robert Koch
  63. Who found a treatment to syphilis
    Paul Ehrlich
  64. Who found a mold that inhibited bacteria growth
    Alexander Flemming
  65. Who dispelled abiogenesis?
    Louis Pasteur
  66. Who discovered the cell?
    Robert Hooke
  67. Who created the smallpox vaccine?
    Who created the smallpox vaccine?
  68. Who created the smallpox vaccine?
    Edward Jenner
  69. Where does E. coli / Salmonella spp. come from?
    feces from farm animals or mice
  70. When referring to a microbe how many names do you use?
    2. first the genus then the species
  71. What were in 17 peoples letters in 2001?
    Bacillus anthrasis spores
  72. What is Streptomyces parvulus being used for?
    to make anti-cancer drugs
  73. What is nomenclature?
    the naming of something?
  74. What is Koch's postulates?
    isolate the microbe from diseased/dead animal. Grow in pure culture. Use pure culture to infect healthy animal. Re-isolate microbe from the reinfected animal
  75. thermophile means
    high temperature
  76. Staphylo means
    cluster shaped
  77. Spirillium means
    spiral shaped
  78. Species is
    lowercase
  79. Scanning electron microscopes allow us to see
    the texture of bacteria
  80. Salmenolosis is caused
    Salmonella newport
  81. Salmenolosis is
    food poisoning
  82. Pseudopods means
    fake foot
  83. Protozoa have
    flagella & cilia
  84. Protozoa are classified as
    eukaryotic
  85. Protozoa are
    unicellular
  86. Prokaryotic means..
    before nucleus & no membrane bound organelles
  87. Peptidoglycan is specific to...
    bacteria
  88. Normal protozoa
    euglena
  89. MRSA can cause...
    MRSA infection
  90. Microbiology
    the study of small life
  91. Microbes are mostly...
    unicellular
  92. Light microscopes allow us to see
    bacteria, yeast, protozoa
  93. Gas gangrene is caused by
    Clostridium perfringens
  94. Life is defined by
    Cell, homeostasis, Growth and development, Assimilation of energy, Have genetic material, Reproduction
  95. How was the smallpox vaccine created?
    Jenner found that milkmaids didn't seem to get smallpox. They instead got cowpox. Experimentally infected a "volunteer" with cowpox and then tried to infect the patient with smallpox. Cowpox was protective against smallpox
  96. How was the cell discovered?
    Observed cells of dried cork wood using a crude "microscope" & found little compartments
  97. Family of influenza is called
    Orthomyxoviridae
  98. Family of HIV called
    retroviridae
  99. Family of Hantavirus is called
    bunyaviridae
  100. Examples of microbes...
    Bacteria, Archaea ,Fungi, Protozoa ,Multicellular Animal Parasite, Algae, Viruses
  101. Examples of macroscopic growth
    colonies on agar plate or cloudiness in broth
  102. Example of unicellular fungi
    yeast
  103. example of multicellular fungi
    mushrooms & molds
  104. Disease causing protozoa
    Giardia lamblia
  105. Diabetics are prone to
    gas gangrene caused by Clostridium perfringens
  106. Cultures can be grown in
    agar plates or broth media
  107. Clostridium difficile is resistant
    to most antibiotics
  108. Clostridium difficile can cause
    hospital acquired pseudomembranous colitis
  109. Clostridium botulinum is used in what and does what?
    used in botox and paralyzes the face
  110. Cilia aka
    pseudopods
  111. Broth media is
    liquid media without agar
  112. Botulism is caused by
    Clostridium botulinum
  113. Both names get?
    italized (type) or underlined (handwritten)
  114. .Beneficial fungi
    Cantherellus cibarius (mushrooms we eat)
  115. Bacillus anthrasis causes
    Anthrax
  116. Bacillus anthrasis is used in..
    biological warfare
  117. Why did women get more infections at the hospital during childbirth & how was it prevented?
    Doctors would routinely go from autopsy to maternity wards without washing hands. New "aseptic" technique using crude/harsh chemicals reduced hospital borne infections
  118. Life is defined by
    Cell, homeostasis, Growth and development, Assimilation of energy, Have genetic material, Reproduction
  119. (alpha-)amino acid
    the subunit of proteins, containing at least one carboxyl (--COOH) group and one amino (--NH2) group attached to the same carbon atom (the alpha atom) and existing in configurations called stereoisomers designated D or L
  120. acid
    a substance that dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions (or protons H+) and one or more negative ions and acts as a proton donor
  121. acidic
    containing more H+ ions than OH- ions, with a pH lower than 7
  122. adenosine disphosphate (ADP)
    a molecule consisting of an adenosine unit of adenine and ribose joined to two phosphate groups
  123. adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
    the principal energy-carrying molecule in all cells, consisting of an adenosine unit of adenine and ribose joined to three phosphate groups

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