Microbiology Review Chapter 1-2, 4-5, 8

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Microbiology Review Chapter 1-2, 4-5, 8
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Microbiology Review Chapter 1-2, 4-5, 8
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  1. (Chap 1) How did the idea of spontaneous generation come about?
    People came to believe that living organisms arise from nonliving matter because they would see flies coming out of manure, maggots coming out of dead animals, and microorganisms appearing in liquids after a day or two.
  2. (Chap 1) Briefly state the role microorganisms play in each of the following:
    • a. biological control of pests: Certain microorganisms cause diseases in insects. Microorganisms that kill insects can be effective biological control agents because they are specific for the pest and do not persist in the environment.
    • b. recycling of elements: Carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus are required for all living organisms. Microorganisms convert these elements into forms that are useful for other organisms. Many bacteria decompose material and release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which plants use. Some bacteria can take nitrogen from the atmosphere and convert it into a form that plants and other microorganisms can use.
    • c. normal microbiota: Normal microbiota are microorganisms that are found in and on the human body. They do not usually cause disease and can be beneficial.
    • d. sewage treatment: Organic matter in sewage is decomposed by bacteria into carbon dioxide, nitrates, phosphates, sulfate, and other inorganic compounds in a wastewater treatment plant.
    • e. human insulin production: Recombinant DNA techniques have resulted in insertion of the gene for insulin production into bacteria. These bacteria can produce human insulin inexpensively.
    • f. vaccine production: Microorganisms can be used as vaccines. Some microbes can be genetically modified to produce components of vaccines.
    • g. biofilms: Biofilms are aggregated bacteria adhering to each other and to a solid surface.
  3. (Chap 1) Into which field of microbiology would the following scientists best fit?
    • a. Studies biodegradation of toxic wastes: Biotechnology, Microbial ecology
    • b. Studies the causative agent of Ebolahemorrhagic fever: Virology
    • c. Studies the production of humanproteins by bacteria: Biotechnology, Microbial genetics, Microbial physiology
    • d. Studies the symptoms of AIDS: Immunology
    • e. Studies the production of toxin by E. coli: Microbial physiology
    • f. Studies the life cycle of Cryptosporidium: Microbial ecology
    • g. Develops gene therapy for a disease: Microbial genetics
    • h. Studies the fungus Candida albicans: Mycology
  4. (Chap 1) Match the microorganisms in column A to their descriptions in column B.
    • a. Archaea: Prokaryote without peptidoglycan cell wall
    • b. Algae: Cell wall made of cellulose; photosynthetic
    • c. Bacteria: Cell wall made of peptidoglycan
    • d. Fungi: Cell wall made of chitin
    • e. Helminths: Multicellular animals
    • f. Protozoa: Unicellular, complex cell structure lacking a cell wall
    • g. Viruses: Not composed of cells
  5. (Chap 1) Match the people in column A to their contribution toward the advancement of microbiology, in column B.
    • a. Avery, MacLeod,and McCarty: Proved that DNA is the hereditary material
    • b. Beadle and Tatum: Showed that genes code for enzymes
    • c. Berg: Spliced animal DNA to bacterial DNA
    • d. Ehrlich: Used the first synthetic chemotherapeuticagent
    • e. Fleming: Discovered penicillin
    • f. Hooke: First to observe cells in plant material andname them
    • g. Iwanowski: Observed that viruses are filterable
    • h. Jacob and Monod: Discovered how DNA controls protein synthesis in a cell
    • i. Jenner: Developed vaccine against smallpox
    • j. Koch: Proved that microorganisms can causedisease
    • k. Lancefield: Proposed a classification system for streptococci based on antigens in their cell walls
    • l. Lederberg and Tatum: Discovered that DNA can be transferred from one bacterium to another
    • m. Lister: First to use disinfectants in surgicalprocedures
    • n. Pasteur: Disproved spontaneous generation
    • o. Stanley: First to characterize a virus
    • p. van Leeuwenhoek: First to observe bacteria
    • q. Virchow: Said living cells arise from preexistingliving cells
    • r. Weizmann: Used bacteria to produce acetone
  6. (Chap 1) The genus name of a bacterium is “erwinia,” and the specific epithet is “amylovora.” Write the scientific name of this organism correctly. Using this name as an example, explain how scientific names are chosen.
    Erwinia amylovora is the correct way to write this scientific name. Scientific names can be derived from the names of scientists. In this case, Erwinia is derived from Erwin F. Smith, an American plant pathologist. Scientific names also can describe the organism, its habitat, or its niche. E. amylovora is a pathogen of plants (amylo- 5 starch; vora 5 eat).
  7. (Chap 1) It is possible to purchase the following microorganisms in a retail store. Provide a reason for buying each.
    • a. Bacillus thuringiensis: B. thuringiensis is sold as a biological insecticide.
    • b. Saccharomyces: Saccharomyces is the yeast sold for making bread, wine, and beer.
  8. (Chap 1) Show where airborne microbes ended up in Pasteur’s experiment.
  9. (Chap 1) What type of microorganism has a peptieoglycan cell wall, has DNA that is not contained in a nucleus, and has flagella?
    Bacteria
  10. (Chap 1) Which of the following is a scientific name?

    a. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    b. Tubercle bacillus
    a. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  11. (Chap 1) Which of the following is not a characteristic of bacteria?

    A. have the ability to move
    B. have the same shape
    C. grow by binary fission
    D. have peptidoglycan cell walls
    E. are prokaryotic
    B. have the same shape
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. (Chap 1) Which of the following is the most important element of Koch’s germ theory of disease? The animal shows disease symptoms when

    A. the animal has been in contact with a sick animal.
    B. a microorganism is inoculated into the animal.
    C. the animal has a lowered resistance.
    D. microorganisms can be cultured from the animal.
    E. a microorganism is observed in the animal.
    B. a microorganism is inoculated into the animal.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. (Chap 1) Recombinant DNA is

    A. DNA in bacteria.
    B. the use of bacteria in the production of foods.
    C. the study of how genes work.
    D. the production of proteins by genes.
    E. the DNA resulting when genes of two different organisms are mixed.
    E. the DNA resulting when genes of two different organisms are mixed.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. (Chap 1) Which of the following statements is the best definition ofbiogenesis?

    A. A vital force is necessary for life.
    B. Nonliving matter gives rise to living organisms.
    C. Microorganisms can be generated from nonliving matter.
    D. Air is necessary for living organisms.
    E. Living cells can only arise from preexisting cells.
    E. Living cells can only arise from preexisting cells.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. (Chap 1) Which of the following is a beneficial activity of microorganisms?
    a. Some microorganisms are used as food for humans.
    b. Some microorganisms use carbon dioxide.
    c. Some microorganisms provide nitrogen for plant growth.
    d. Some microorganisms are used in sewage treatment processes.
    e. all of the above
    e. all of the above
  16. (Chap 1) It has been said that bacteria are essential for the existence oflife on Earth. Which of the following is the essential functionperformed by bacteria?

    A. directly provide food for humans
    B. cause disease
    C. produce human hormones such as insulin
    D. control insect populations
    E. decompose organic material and recycle elements
    E. decompose organic material and recycle elements
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. (Chap 1) Which of the following is an example of bioremediation?

    A. application of oil-degrading bacteria to an oil spill
    B. application of bacteria to a crop to prevent frost damage
    C. production by bacteria of a human protein such as interferon
    D. fixation of gaseous nitrogen into usable nitrogen
    e. all of the above
    A. application of oil-degrading bacteria to an oil spill
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. (Chap 1) Spallanzani’s conclusion about spontaneous generation waschallenged because Lavoisier had just shown that oxygen was thevital component of air. Which of the following statements is true?

    A. Some microbes do not require air.
    B. Lavoisier was mistaken.
    C. Only disease-causing organisms require air.
    D. Pasteur kept air out of his biogenesis experiments.
    E. All life requires air.
    A. Some microbes do not require air.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. (Chap 1) Which of the following statements about E. coli is false?

    A. A disease-causing strain of E. coli causes bloody diarrhea.
    B. E. coli is part of the normal microbiota of humans.
    C. E. coli was the first disease-causing bacterium identified by Koch.
    D. E. coli is beneficial in human intestines.
    e. none of the above
    C. E. coli was the first disease-causing bacterium identified by Koch.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. (Chap 2) What is a chemical element?
    Atoms with the same atomic number and chemical behavior areclassified as chemical elements.
  21. (Chap 2) Diagram the electronic configuration of a carbon atom.
  22. (Chap 2) What type of bond holds the following atoms together?

    a. Li+ and Cl- in LiCl
    b. carbon and oxygen atoms in methanol
    c. oxygen atoms in O2
    d. a hydrogen atom of one nucleotide to a nitrogen or oxygen atom of another nucleotide in: 
  23. (Chap 2) Classify the following types of chemical reactions.
  24. (Chap 2) Bacteria use the enzyme urease to obtain nitrogen in a form they can use from urea in the following reaction:
    What purpose does the enzyme serve in this reaction? What type of reaction is this?
  25. (Chap 2) Classify the following as subunits of either a carbohydrate, lipid,protein, or nucleic acid.
  26. (Chap 2) The artificial sweetener aspartame, or NutraSweet, is made by joining aspartic acid to methylated phenylalanine, as shown below.
    • a. What types of molecules are aspartic acid and phenylalanine?
    • b. What direction is the hydrolysis reaction (left to right or right to left)?
    • c. What direction is the dehydration synthesis reaction?
    • d. Circle the atoms involved in the formation of water.e. Identify the peptide bond.
  27. (Chap 2) The following diagram shows the bacteriorhodopsin protein. Indicate the regions of primary, secondary, and tertiary structure. Does this protein have quaternary structure?
  28. (Chap 2) Draw a simple lipid, and show how it could be modified to a phospholipid.
  29. (Chap 2) What type of microorganism has a chitin cell wall, has DNA that is contained in a nucleus, and has ergosterol in its plasma membrane?
  30. (Chap 2) 

    a. carbohydrates.
    b. lipids.
    c. proteins.
    d. water.
    e. none of the above
  31. (Chap 2) If Pseudomonas bacteria are supplied with radioactively labeled cytosine, after a 24-hour incubation period this cytosine would most likely be found in the cells’

    a. carbohydrates.
    b. DNA.
    c. lipids.
    d. water.
    e. proteins.
  32. (Chap 2) 

    a. ATP.
    b. carbohydrates.
    c. DNA.
    d. plasma membrane.
    e. none of the above
  33. (Chap 2) The optimum pH of Thiobacillus bacteria (pH 3,) is ___________ times more acid than blood (pH 7).

    a. 4
    b. 10
    c. 100
    d. 1000
    e. 10,000
  34. (Chap 2) The best definition of ATP is that it is

    a. a molecule stored for food use.
    b. a molecule that supplies energy to do work.
    c. a molecule stored for an energy reserve.
    d. a molecule used as a source of phosphate.
  35. (Chap 2) Which of the following is an organic molecule?
  36. (Chap 2) Classify the molecules as an acid, base, or salt. The dissociation products of the molecules are shown to help you.
  37. (Chap 2) Classify the molecules as an acid, base, or salt. The dissociation products of the molecules are shown to help you.
  38. (Chap 2) Classify the molecules as an acid, base, or salt. The dissociation products of the molecules are shown to help you.
  39. (Chap 2) Classify the molecules as an acid, base, or salt. The dissociation products of the molecules are shown to help you.

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