Describe the driving force for solution formation.
Explain the effect of intermolecular forces on solution formation.
Describe the overall process of solution formation and the enthalpy changes associated with it. Define heat of hydration.
Explain dynamic equilibrium with respect to solution formation.
Define: saturated, unsaturated and supersaturated solutions.
Describe the temperature dependence of the solubility of solids.
Describe the factors affecting the solubility of gases in water.
Solve gas solubility problems using Henry’s Law.
Define and perform calculations using common units to express solution concentrations including: molarity (M), molality (m), mole fraction (X), mole percent (mol %), percent by mass or volume (%). Convert from one concentration unit to another.
Define: parts per million (ppm) and parts per billion (ppb) by mass or volume.
Describe the effect on the vapor pressure of the solvent upon the addition of either a nonvolatile, nonelectrolyte solute or a nonvolatile, electrolyte solute.
Calculate the vapor pressure of solutions containing non-volatile solutes using Raoult’s law.
Calculate the vapor pressure of solutions containing volatile solutes using Raoult’s law.
Explain the difference between an ideal and a non-ideal solution.
Explain why the lower vapor pressure for a solution containing a nonvolatile solute also results in a higher boiling point and a lower melting point compared to the pure solvent.
Define colligative properties, osmosis and osmotic pressure.
Perform calculations involving freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, and osmotic pressure.
Explain the role and meaning of the van’t Hoff factor in determining the colligative properties of solutions containing strong electrolytes.
Describe the difference between a colloidal dispersion (colloid) and a solution.
Describe the Tyndall effect and how it can be used to identify colloids.