The Process by which sensory stimuli are transduced into slow, graded receptor potentials.
A slow, graded electrical potential produced by a receptor cell in response to a physical stimulus.
One of the perceptual dimensions of color; the dominant wavelenght
One of the Perceptual dimensions of color; intensity
One of the perceptual dimensions of color purity
changes in the thickness of the eye, accomplished by the ciliary muscles, that focus images of images of images of near or distant objects on the retina
The neural tissue and photoreceptive cells located on the inner surface of the portion of the eye.
One of the receptor cell of the retina; sensitive to light of flow intensity.
One of the receptor cell of the retina; maximally sensitive to one of the three different wavelengths of light and hence encodes color vision.
One of the receptor cells of the retina; transduces photic energy into electrical potential.
The location of the exit point from the retina of the fibers of the ganglion cells that form the optic nerve; responsible for the blind spot.
A bipolar neuron located in the middle layer of the retina, conveying info from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells
A neuron located in the retina that receives visual info from bipolar cells; its axon give rise to the optic nerve
A neuron in the retina that interconnects adjacent photoreceptors and the outer processes of the bipolar cells.
A neuron in the retina that interconnects adjacent ganglion cells and the bipolar cells
A layer of membrane containting photopigments; found in rods and cones of the retina.
A protein dye bonded to retinal, a substance derived from vitamin A; responsible fro transduction of visual info.
A class of protein that, together with retinal, constitues the photopigments.
A chemical synthesized from vitamin a; joins with an opsin to form a photopigment.
A particular opsin found in rods.
Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN)
A group of cell bodies within the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus; receives inputs from the retina and projects to the primary visual cortex.
One of the inner two layers of the neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus; transmits info necessary for the perception of form, movement, depth, and small differences in brightness to the primary visual cortex.
One of the four outer layers of neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus; transmits info necessary for perception of color and fine details to the primary visual cortex
A horizontal fissure on the inner surface of the posterior cerebral cortex; the location of the primary visual cortex
One of the sublayers of neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus found ventral to each of the magnocellular and parvocellular layers; transmits info from short-wavelength cones to the primary visual cortex
Functions of the Dorsal Stream...
form, movement, depths, and brightness
Functions of the Ventral Stream..
color, fine visual details
Association areas of the dorsal stream..
parietal and frontal cortex
Association areas of the ventral stream
Coding for color (Trichromatic Theory)
basic color mixing red-blue-green; 3 cone types long-medium-short
a change in the membrane potential of the cell that directly changes neurotransmitter release(work hard in the dark, slowdown in the light)
The extent to which a particular neuron receives more input from one eye than from the other.
A system of interconnected regions of visual cortex involved in the perception of spatial location, beginning with the striate cortex and ending with the Posterior parietal cortex
A System of interconnected regions of visual cortex involved in the perception of form, beginning with the striate cortex; involved in perception of movement and spatial location
The relatively appearance of the colors of objects viewed under varying lighting conditions
Inability to discriminate among different hues; caused by damage to area V8 of the visual association cortex.
Deficits in visual perception in the absence of blindness; caused by brain damage
Lateral Occipital Complex (LOC)
A region of the extrastriate cortex, involved in perception of objects other than people's bodies and faces.
Failure to recognize particular people by the sight of their faces.
Fusiform Face Area (FFA)
A region of the visual association cortex located in the inferior temporal lobe; involved in perception of faces and other complex objects that require expertise to recognize.
Extrastraite Body Area (EBA)
A region of the visual association cortex located in the lateral occipitotemporal cortex; involved in perception of the human body and body parts other than faces.
Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA)
A region of limbic cortex on the medial temproal lobe; involved in perception of particular places ("scenes")
The complex motion of pointsin the visual field caused by relative movement between the observer and environment; provides info about the relative distance of objects from the observer and of the relative direction of movement.
Inability to perceive movement, caused by damage to area V5 (also called MST) of the visual association cortex
A perceptual dimension of sound, corresponds to the fundamental fundamental frequency- place rate
A perceptual dimension of sound; corresponds to intensity-rate how fast a particular nerve system fires
direction- phase/ intensity difference
A perceptual dimension of sound; corresponds to complexity, overtones
One of the three bones of the middle ear
The snail-shaped structure of the inner ear that contains the auditory transduring mechanisms
Organ of Corti
The sensory organ on the basilar membrane that contains the auditory hair cells
The receptive cell of the auditory apparatus
A membrane in the cochlea of the inner ear; contains the organ of corti
The branch of the auditory nerve that transmits auditory info from the cochlea to
A bundle of efferent axons that travel from the olivary complex of the auditory hair cells on the cochlea
One of a group of nucli in the medulla that receive auditory info from the cochlea
A topographically organized mapping of different frequencies of sound that are represented in a particular region of the brain
An electronic device surgically implanted in the inner ear that can enable firing of neurons in the auditory system
The system by which info about different frequencies is coded by the rate of firing of neurons in the auditory system
A "stroke"; brain damage caused by occlusion or rupture of a blood vessel in the brain
Difficalty in producing or comprehending speech not produced by deafness or a simple motor deficit; caused by brain damage
A form of aphasia characterized by a grammatism, anomia, and extreme difficulty in speech articulation
A region of frontal cortex,located just rostral to the base of the left primary motor cortex, that is necessary fornormal speech production
One of the usual symptoms of Broca's aphasia; a difficulty in comprehending or properly employing grammatical devices, such as verb endings and word order
A region of auditory association cortex on the left temporal lobe of humans, which is important in the comprehension of words and the production of meaningful speech
Pure Word Deafness
The ability to hear, to speak, and to read and write without being able to comprehend the meaning of speech; caused by damage to Wernicke's area or distribution of auditory input to this region
Pure Word Blindness
normal speech production and comprehension, however, reading ability is lost and writing is difficult. It is cause by damage to the angular gyrus
one of set of two receptor organs in each inner ear that detect changes in the tilt of the head