PSY 319 Unit 2

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PSY 319 Unit 2
2013-10-02 21:47:04
PYS 319

Vision: Anatomy & Transduction
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  1. Sensory Transduction
    The Process by which sensory stimuli are transduced into slow, graded receptor potentials.
  2. Receptor Potential
    A slow, graded electrical potential produced by a receptor cell in response to a physical stimulus.
  3. Hue
    One of the perceptual dimensions of color; the dominant wavelenght
  4. Brightness
    One of the Perceptual dimensions of color; intensity
  5. Saturatioin
    One of the perceptual dimensions of color purity
  6. Accommodation
    changes in the thickness of the eye, accomplished by the ciliary muscles, that focus images of images of images of near or distant objects on the retina
  7. Retina
    The neural tissue and photoreceptive cells located on the inner surface of the portion of the eye.
  8. Rod
    One of the receptor cell of the retina; sensitive to light of flow intensity.
  9. Cone
    One of the receptor cell of the retina; maximally sensitive to one of the three different wavelengths of light and hence encodes color vision.
  10. Photoreceptor
    One of the receptor cells of the retina; transduces photic energy into electrical potential.
  11. Optic Disk
    The location of the exit point from the retina of the fibers of the ganglion cells that form the optic nerve; responsible for the blind spot.
  12. Bipolar Cell
    A bipolar neuron located in the middle layer of the retina, conveying info from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells
  13. Ganglion Cell
    A neuron located in the retina that receives visual info from bipolar cells; its axon give rise to the optic nerve
  14. Horizontal Cell
    A neuron in the retina that interconnects adjacent photoreceptors and the outer processes of the bipolar cells.
  15. Amacrine Cell
    A neuron in the retina that interconnects adjacent ganglion cells and the bipolar cells
  16. Lamella
    A layer of membrane containting photopigments; found in rods and cones of the retina.
  17. Photopigment
    A protein dye bonded to retinal, a substance derived from vitamin A; responsible fro transduction of visual info.
  18. Opsin
    A class of protein that, together with retinal, constitues the photopigments.
  19. Retinal
    A chemical synthesized from vitamin a; joins with an opsin to form a photopigment.
  20. Rhodopsin
    A particular opsin found in rods.
  21. Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN)
    A group of cell bodies within the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus; receives inputs from the retina and projects to the primary visual cortex.
  22. Magnocellular Layer
    One of the inner two layers of the neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus; transmits info necessary for the perception of form, movement, depth, and small differences in brightness to the primary visual cortex.
  23. Parvocellular Layer
    One of the four outer layers of neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus; transmits info necessary for perception of color and fine details to the primary visual cortex
  24. Calcarine Fissure
    A horizontal fissure on the inner surface of the posterior cerebral cortex; the location of the primary visual cortex
  25. Koniocellular Sublayers
    One of the sublayers of neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus found ventral to each of the magnocellular and parvocellular layers; transmits info from short-wavelength cones to the primary visual cortex
  26. Functions of the Dorsal Stream...
    form, movement, depths, and brightness
  27. Functions of the Ventral Stream..
    color, fine visual details
  28. Association areas of the dorsal stream..
    parietal and frontal cortex
  29. Association areas of the ventral stream
    Temporal cortex
  30. Coding for color (Trichromatic Theory)
    basic color mixing red-blue-green; 3 cone types long-medium-short
  31. Coding for Color(Opponent Process Theory)
    ganglion cell throught on/off center/surround coding "see" in pair & blue/yellow
  32. TEO
    more posterior; probably simple 2D forms
  33. TE
    more anterior; complex 3D forms and images
  34. Photoreceptor( NOTES, Definition)
    a change in the membrane potential of the cell that directly changes neurotransmitter release(work hard in the dark, slowdown in the light)
  35. Ocular Dominace
    The extent to which a particular neuron receives more input from one eye than from the other.
  36. Dorsal Stream
    A system of interconnected regions of visual cortex involved in the perception of spatial location, beginning with the striate cortex and ending with the Posterior parietal cortex
  37. Ventral Stream
    A System of interconnected regions of visual cortex involved in the perception of form, beginning with the striate cortex; involved in perception of movement and spatial location
  38. Color Constancy
    The relatively appearance of the colors of objects viewed under varying lighting conditions
  39. Cerebral Achromatopsia
    Inability to discriminate among different hues; caused by damage to area V8 of the visual association cortex.
  40. Visual Agnosia
    Deficits in visual perception in the absence of blindness; caused by brain damage
  41. Lateral Occipital Complex (LOC)
    A region of the extrastriate cortex, involved in perception of objects other than people's bodies and faces.
  42. Prosopagnosia
    Failure to recognize particular people by the sight of their faces.
  43. Fusiform Face Area (FFA)
    A region of the visual association cortex located in the inferior temporal lobe; involved in perception of faces and other complex objects that require expertise to recognize.
  44. Extrastraite Body Area (EBA)
    A region of the visual association cortex located in the lateral occipitotemporal cortex; involved in perception of the human body and body parts other than faces.
  45. Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA)
    A region of limbic cortex on the medial temproal lobe; involved in perception of particular places ("scenes")
  46. Optic Flow
    The complex motion of pointsin the visual field caused by relative movement between the observer and environment; provides info about the relative distance of objects from the observer and of the relative direction of movement.
  47. Akine Topsia
    Inability to perceive movement, caused by damage to area V5 (also called MST) of the visual association cortex
  48. Pitch
    A perceptual dimension of sound, corresponds to the fundamental fundamental frequency- place rate
  49. Loudness
    A perceptual dimension of sound; corresponds to intensity-rate how fast a particular nerve system fires
  50. Location
    direction- phase/ intensity difference
  51. Timbre
    A perceptual dimension of sound; corresponds to complexity, overtones
  52. Ossicle
    One of the three bones of the middle ear
  53. Cochlea
    The snail-shaped structure of the inner ear that contains the auditory transduring mechanisms
  54. Organ of Corti
    The sensory organ on the basilar membrane that contains the auditory hair cells
  55. Hair Cell
    The receptive cell of the auditory apparatus
  56. Basilar Membrane
    A membrane in the cochlea of the inner ear; contains the organ of corti
  57. Cochlear Nerve
    The branch of the auditory nerve that transmits auditory info from the cochlea to
  58. Olivocochlear Bundle
    A bundle of efferent axons that travel from the olivary complex of the auditory hair cells on the cochlea
  59. Cochlear Nucleus
    One of a group of nucli in the medulla that receive auditory info from the cochlea
  60. Tonotopic Representation
    A topographically organized mapping of different frequencies of sound that are represented in a particular region of the brain
  61. Cochlear implant
    An electronic device surgically implanted in the inner ear that can enable firing of neurons in the auditory system
  62. Rate Coding
    The system by which info about different frequencies is coded by the rate of firing of neurons in the auditory system
  63. Cerebrovascular Accident
    A "stroke"; brain damage caused by occlusion or rupture of a blood vessel in the brain
  64. Aphasia
    Difficalty in producing or comprehending speech not produced by deafness or a simple motor deficit; caused by brain damage
  65. Broca's Aphasia
    A form of aphasia characterized by a grammatism, anomia, and extreme difficulty in speech articulation
  66. Broca's Area
    A region of frontal cortex,located just rostral to the base of the left primary motor cortex, that is necessary fornormal speech production
  67. Agrummatism
    One of the usual symptoms of Broca's aphasia; a difficulty in comprehending or properly employing grammatical devices, such as verb endings and word order
  68. Wernicke's Area
    A region of auditory association cortex on the left temporal lobe of humans, which is important in the comprehension of words and the production of meaningful speech
  69. Pure Word Deafness
    The ability to hear, to speak, and to read and write without being able to comprehend the meaning of speech; caused by damage to Wernicke's area or distribution of auditory input to this region
  70. Pure Word Blindness
    normal speech production and comprehension, however, reading ability is lost and writing is difficult. It is cause by damage to the angular gyrus
  71. Vestibular Sac
    one of set of two receptor organs in each inner ear that detect changes in the tilt of the head
  72. Pain Afferents
    A-delta fibers, C-fibers
  73. Pain Nociceptors
    4 types: Thermal, mechanical, chemo, polymodal
  74. What function does pain serve?
    warning system for body damage/harm
  75. A-delta fibers(Pain)
    larger, myelinated, fast, sharp, highly localized pain
  76. C-fibers (pain)
    smaller and unmyelinated, slow, dull, diffuse pain