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Explain what is meant by “Quality is a
quality helps a company to compete better against other companies. Quality is a tool that allows a company to:Build, shape, and innovate its product or service.
Explain why quality will be an unending marathon for any business
every nation that manufactures items for sale on the world market is engaged in a never-ending marathon to win or at least place in the world market. All manufacturers are in a marathon that has no finish line,and they cannot afford to rest or they will be passed up.
Name the person responsible for the economic turnaround of both Japan and the United States, and explain what situation in Japan caused him to inadvertently start the turnaround.
General Douglas MacArthur. He needed quality radios but because Japanese manufacturers couldn’t give MacArthur the quantity or quality of radios he needed, he was forced to send for Americans to teach the Japanese how to manufacture good radios. MacArthur’s need for reliable household radios eventually changed the world economic order.
List the three things needed to mass-produce
- To mass-produce anything, three things are needed:
- 1. The parts
- 2. A way to assemble them
- 3. An efficient way to organize the assembly
Explain what is meant by the phrase, “Inspection works well on an individual basis, but is expensive and wasteful in mass production.”
In a mass production, hundreds of products can be made before anyone knows they are being made wrong. Someone still has to be paid for the product so it cost just as much to make it wrong as it costs to make it right.
List the five economic advantages America had over its competitors after World War II.
After the war America had a huge domestic market and the world’s best technology.Also with their enormous wealth came the best educated workforce and the best managers.
Explain the fallacy of the statement, “If it
ain’t broke, don’t fix it.”
Why would you wait for something to break? Instead you could continually improve the system so that it gets better and less expensive. Plus you will not go through the trouble of trying to fix it.
List the three most respected American quality
Dr. W. Edwards Deming, Joseph M. Juran, and Philip Crosby
Explain what Deming’s quality system focused on most
good quality did not necessarily mean high quality. Good quality is a predictable degree of dependability at low cost that is suited to the market
Explain what Juran’s quality system focused on
Juran believed there were two kinds of quality: fitness for use and conformance to specifications.
Explain what Crosby’s quality system focused on
nonconformance. He didn’t believe in talking about poor quality or high quality. Instead, he talked about conformance and nonconformance.He wanted zero defects.
Describe the most significant contribution Ishikawa made to the quality improvement process.
Ishikawa developed Quality Control circles in 1962. Workers gave suggestions to managers and the only difference between American managers and Japanese was the fact the Japanese managers would listen. He also is responsible for acknowledging the internal customer plays a major role
Who did Juran, Crosby, and Deming claim was
responsible for about 89 percent of all quality problems?
Management was the cause of quality problems. Because it was the managements job to get the workers to work smarter, not harder. Hard work doesn’t improve quality
(True or false) Zero defects means the worker comes to work each day and must not make a single mistake
Taguchi is recognized for what contribution to
the study of quality?
The practical application of the Taguchi loss formula can save an enormous amount of money. He believed in making products not only above specifications but as close to perfect as possible.
Explain the benefits of ISO registration
ISO standards are voluntary. They are developed in response to market demand and are based on the consensus of interested parties, ensuring the applicability of the standards. ISO standards retain their position as state of the art
Explain how continued ISO registration is
Firms apply to the registration accreditation board (RAB) to have their manufacturing process registered. RAB will send out auditors to assure the customers that the manufacturers are meeting the ISO standards. These manufactures are audited semi annually. The European Union (EU) requires that trading partners be ISO registered for many products or services. Because of this requirement, many U.S. companies decided to register
Distinguish between the early concepts of quality (conformance to specifications) versus the new concept (maintenance of consistency).
TQM has moved from the engineering concept of quality, which was conformance to requirements (specifications), and now embraces maintaining consistency in products and service
List the four major elements of TQM
TQM has four major components. Those are customer focus, employee empowerment, continuous improvement, and management by facts
Explain the fallacy of having acceptable quality
The goal of a quality system is zero defects. This means that acceptable quality is not good enough. Total quality means no defects compared to acceptable quality, which means there will be some defects
We all know that a 90 or better is an “A,” which is the ultimate grade. You are about to have a pacemaker installed inside your body. The company that makes the pacemaker rates their product as 99.6 percent error-free. Describe your feeling the night before the surgery as you contemplate the defect rate of this product
Knowing that there is a possibility of failure would make me feel un easy. I would be scared and would most likely look for someone that would guarantee a 100 percent error free product
For problem #7, how many out of 1,000 pacemakers will be defective?
4 products would be defective
Define the following terms:
- External customer- Customers outside of the company.
- Internal customer – people within the company who receive the work of another and then add their contributions to the product or service before passing it on to someone else.
- Customer satisfaction-Anyone who receives or
- uses the product or service that is satisfied.
Explain the importance of identifying the
employee as a customer
Employees are internal customers. It is important to have a satisfied internal customer because they are next down the assembly line
Describe the 1-10-100 Rule
The 1 in the rule represents one dollar, the 10 represents ten dollars, and the 100 represents 100 dollars. The further a nonconformance moves through the system, the more expensive fixing the problem becomes
Why are performance standards important?
No TQM standard will perform satisfactory without performance standards. A performance standard measures how well a person or process unit performs to defined standards. All companies have performance systems and standards