Bio Ecology

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Anonymous
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235813
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Bio Ecology
Updated:
2013-09-19 15:16:26
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  1. Heterotrophs-
    eats other things
  2. Autotroph-
    self-feeding
  3. ¨Biogeochemical cycles
    ¤Water

    ¤Nitrogen

    ¤Carbon
  4. Gamma
    diversity
    • combines
    • both
  5. ¨Beta
    diversity-
    • ¨Diversity
    • between sites
  6. ¨Alpha
    diversity-
    Diversity at a particular site
  7. Shannon
    diversity
    index
    • ¨combines
    • both

    • Species
    • Abundance

    • Species
    • Richness
  8. Species
    Abundance
    • -
    • Number of individuals/species
  9. Species
    Richness
    • ¨Number
    • of species
  10. Antipredator
    strategies
    ¤Mimicry

    nMullerian mimicry – Toxic species similar pattern

    nBatesian mimicry – Palatable mimic cheats

    ¤Displays of intimidation

    ¤Fighting and defense

    • Horns
    • and antlers can be used in defense
  11. Realized
    niche
    • what
    • a population actually utilizes
  12. Fundamental
    niche
    • ¨what a population is capable of using
    • (e.g., types of food, habitat)
  13. Interspecific
    • ¨between
    • species
  14. Intraspecific
    ¨same species
  15. Predation, herbivory, parasitism
    + -
  16. Neutralism
    0 0
  17. Commensalism
    + 0
  18. Mutualism
    + +
  19. Amensalism
    - 0
  20. Competition
    - -
  21. Ecological footprint
    what impact you have on the world
  22. K
    Carrying Capacity
  23. ¨a chytrid
    fungus.
    It is estimated that much of these declines are due to a single pathogen
  24. Flagship
    Species
    ¨cutest
  25. Umbrella
    Species
    ¨largest geographic range
  26. Indicator
    Species
    ¨most sensitive
  27. ¨Keystone Species
    • most important
    • ecosystem would collapse if they died out
  28. Causes
    for Biodiversity Loss
    • Habitat
    • Destruction/Degradation










    • Direct
    • Exploitation










    • Introduced
    • Species










    Disease
  29. Redundancy Hypothesis
    Arch up to max height
  30. Rivet Hypothesis
    wavey
  31. Polyandry
    ¤one female mates with many males


        andry-android- manly
  32. Polygyny
    ¤one male mates with many females

        Gyny- gynecologist
  33. Polygamy
    • individuals
    • mate with more than one partner
  34. Monogamy
    • each
    • individual mates exclusively with one partner
  35. Intersexual
    • nmember
    • of one sex chooses mate based on particular characteristics
  36. Intrasexual
    Males fight males for the mate
  37. Fixed
    Action Pattern (FAP)
    • innate
    • behavior
  38. Ultimate
    • ‘why’
    • explanation-
    • behavior increases fitness
  39. Proximate
    • ¨‘how’ explanation-
    • signal triggers response
  40. Reciprocal
    altruism
    • ¨is
    • an exchange of fitness benefits that are separated in time.
  41. Kin
    selection
    • ¨is natural selection that acts
    • through benefits to relatives and results in increased indirect fitness.
  42. Hamilton’s
    rule
    • Br > C
    • ¨where B is the fitness benefit to the beneficiary, r is the coefficient of relatedness,
    • and C is the fitness cost to the actor.
  43. Natural
    Selection
    • •“only
    • "only the strong survive”
  44. Fecundity
    • •number
    • of offspring per individual
  45. K-selected
    species
    • more
    • or less stable
  46. R-selected species
    • high
    • rate of per capita population growth

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