Sociology Test 1 (Ch: 1-5)

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Sociology Test 1 (Ch: 1-5)
2013-09-22 14:12:07

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  1. Role Conflict
    incompatibility between the roles of two or more statuses held by an individual
  2. Symbolic Interactionism
    • Addresses the subjective meaning of human acts and processes through which people come to develop and communicate shared meanings.
    • George Herbert Mead
  3. Symbolic Interactionists
    focus on the definition of the situation for the people involved
  4. Self
    The self consists of "I" and "Me"
  5. Self-Concept
    • The self we are aware of.
    • The self and self concept emerge through participation in groups
  6. Sampling
    Surveying a group of people from an entire population.
  7. Role Strain
    Caused by incompatible role demands within a single status.
  8. Empirical Data
    • Pertains to the senses
    • things we can observe
    • objective data
    • (temp, time, color, etc)
  9. Looking Glass Self
    • We imagine how we appear to others
    • We imagine how others judge our appearance
    • we develop feelings about, and responses to, these judgements
  10. Functionalism
    • The first sociological perspective
    • addresses the question of social organization and how it's maintained
    • Durkheim
  11. What are the three assumptions behind functionalism?
    • Stability
    • Harmony
    • Evolution
  12. Functionalists ask:
    What's the function?
  13. Conflict
    • 2nd sociological perspective
    • focus on points of stress and conflict in society
    • Karl Marx
    • Owners doing well because the workers are not doing well
  14. What are the three assumptions underlying conflict?
    • Competition
    • structural enequality
    • social change
  15. Conflict Theorists:
    Ask who benefits?
  16. Value-free sociology
    • Study what is, not what should be
    • the observer should NOT mix own values with observations
    • Max Weber
  17. Roles
    • Sets of norms specifying the rights and obligation associated with status
    • Roles are made from a bundle of norms
    • If you know someones status you can predict their behavior or role.
  18. Explain the differences between the two perspectives of institutions
    • Functionalist: How particular institutions maintain healthy societies; stability, harmony, and evolution
    • Conflict: How certain groups of people benefit from existing social arrangements at the expense of other groups of people.
  19. "I"
    • Part of the "self"
    • Self as a subject 
    • Spontaneous self
    • "I am going to the store"
  20. "Me"
    • Part of the Self
    • Self as an object
    • Self in social context
    • "That's me going to the store"
  21. Microsociology
    • Focuses on social interactions among individuals. 
    • Narrow view
    • Symbolic Interactionism
  22. Objects:
    • Part of symbolic interactionism
    • Symbols point to objects
    • Consist of: goals, things, and social acts
  23. In symbolic interactionism, objects are made of three  things:
    • Goals
    • Things
    • Social Acts
  24. Macrosociology
    • Focuses on social strutcures, organizations, and relationships between them. 
    • Broadview
    • Conflict theory and Functionalism
  25. Conflict theory and functionalism fit under which group? Macrosociology/Microsociology
  26. Symbolic interactionism fits under which group? Macrobiology/Microbiology
  27. What are the three research methods?
    • Fieldwork
    • Surveys
    • Experiments
  28. What are the strengths and weaknesses of Fieldwork- participant observation?
    • Strengths: provide a details, "thick description" of people being observed
    • Weakness: lack of theoretical generalization ability
  29. What are the strengths and weaknesses of surveys?
    • typically done by taking a random sample from an entire population
    • Strengths: works well for technology, good way to find out what a large amount of people think about a specific set of topics
    • Weakness: you don't know much else about the population
  30. What are the strengths and weaknesses of Experiments?
    • For experiments, the researcher manipulates independent variables to test theories of cause and effect.
    • Strengths: excellent for testing hypothesis about cause and effect
    • Weaknesses: possibly unethical, subjects behave differently when under observation, omit factors that would influence the same behavior in real life
  31. Sociological imagination
    • ability to see personal troubles are public issues
    • Our behaviors collectively make public issues.
  32. Role taking:
    • following a set of norms associated with a status
    • Viewing ourselves are we believe others do
    • We "read" our cues from our environment to establish our role
  33. Ascribed status:
    • Fixed by birth & inheratance
    • unalterable in one's lifetime
    • ie. gender, age, son, daughter
  34. Achieved Status:
    • optional
    • one that someone can obtain in a lifetime
    • ie: father, student, husband,
  35. Norm of reciprocity:
    Return favors with a balance of obligation
  36. Norms:
    • Shared rules of conduct that specify how people ought to feel, think, and act.
    • Two types: Folkways & Mores
  37. What are the two types of norms?
    • Folkways 
    • Mores
  38. Significant Other:
    Those whose perspective we use most often in viewing ourselves.
  39. What makes sociology a science?
    Study of empirical data in a systemic fashion
  40. What is language?
    Language is a set of symbols that define situations with goals, things, and social acts
  41. Symbols:
    • Language
    • focus on the definition of a situation
    • the communication of shared meaning
  42. Resocialization
    the process of learning new attitudes and norms required for a new social role
  43. Karl Marx
    • Conflict Theory
    • Materialist conception of history
    • Industrialism
    • People's class positions depend on their relationship to the means of production
    • Two classes: Bourgeoisie and Proletariot
  44. Max believed that..
    Inequality heavily influences the way society develops and influences individual behaviors.
  45. Max Weber:
    • Rationalization of Society
    • Value Free Sociolog-what is not what should be
    • Studied the difference between post and pre industrial societies. 
    • Post industrial societies tend to be more rational.
    • McDonaldization of society
  46. Rationalization has 4 dimensions (Weber):
    • Efficency
    • Calculability
    • Predictability
    • Nonhuman technology
  47. Emile Durkheim
    • Social facts: externality and ability to constrain behaviors
    • Wrote "Suicide"
    • Studied Marx
    • Interested in what attracts people together
    • If you study the social facts, you will find the cohesion
  48. Sociobiology
    • Academic discipline
    • The study of the biological basis of all forms of human behavior
    • Nature vs Nurture
  49. Independent Vairable
    The variable being changed and observed
  50. Dependent variable
    The result that is being tested
  51. Culture
    • The rules and tools of society
    • the total way of live shared by members of a society
  52. Material culture:
    all the physical products of a society
  53. Socialization:
    the process of learning the roles, statuses, and values necessary for participation in social institutions
  54. Goals of Research Process
    • Finding correlations not causal relationships
    • gather data, find patterns, generate theories, test hypothesis
  55. Cultural Relativity
    • Requires that each cultural trait be evaluated in the context of it's own culture
    • Value-free sociology (Weber)
  56. Ethnocentrism
    The belief that your own culture is the standard
  57. Dramaturgy
    • Statuses are the characters in the play
    • Roles are the scripts
  58. Status
    • A specialized position within a group or structure
    • Ascribed or achieved
  59. Roles
    • Sets of norms specifying the rights and obligations associated with a status
    • A bundle of norms
  60. Structures
    • The recurrent patterns of relationships
    • Group, status, role, institution
  61. What are the four structures of relationships?
    • Group
    • Status
    • Role
    • Relationship
  62. Excuses
    Explaination that admits the act in question was wrong, but claims they couldn't help it
  63. Justifications
    Admits that they had choice in the decision, but seeks to explain reason
  64. Accounts
    • Explanation of unexpected behavior
    • Excuse, justification, disclaimers
  65. Disclaimers
    • Happens before behavior
    • verbal device employed in advance to ward off doubts and negative reactions that might result from one's conduct
  66. Identity Salience Hierarchy
    Ranking of an individuals various role identities in order of their importance to him/her
  67. What are the 4 Social Processes of groups?
    • Exchange
    • cooperation
    • competition
    • conflict
  68. Social Process: Exchange
    • Voluntary, all parties expect a reward
    • Norm of reciprocity
  69. Social Process: Cooperation
    group works together to achieve shared goals
  70. Social Process: Competition
    A struggle over scarce resources regulated by shared rules
  71. Social Process: Conflict
    • Struggle over scarce resources
  72. Role Exits
    Believing and explaining to others that one's current role is "temporary and not a reflection of who we really are.
  73. Unfocused Interacton
    We exhibit an awareness of other's presence without engaging in direct interaction
  74. focused interaction:
    When we directly attend to what oher are doing or saying
  75. Civil Inattention
    a polite acknowledgement of the other's physical presence accompanied by social withdrawl
  76. Expressions given:
    those we intend for others ro read
  77. Expressions given off:
    Those we don't intend for other to read and often detract from our intended presentations
  78. The front region of dramaturgy
    where our presentation takes place
  79. back region of dramaturgy
    where we prepare for our presentation
  80. Frames
    • answer the question: what's going on here?
    • Same as Definition of Situation
  81. 6 Main Social Networks
    • Family
    • Peers
    • Schools
    • Media
    • Religion
    • Workplace
  82. Dialectic
    An interpretation of change emphasizing the clash of opposing interests and the resulting struggle as the engine of social transformation.
  83. Cohesion
    • Emile Durkheim
    • What attracts people together
  84. Variables
    Factors that influence an event
  85. Folkways
    • Norms that are customary, normal, habitual ways a group does things
    • examples: wearing clothes
  86. Mores
    • Norms associated with strong feelings of right and wrong
    • If you break these you are considered a bad person
  87. Economic determinism
    • Concept that all social and political change is determined by the economic forces of demand and supply.
    • Karl Marx
  88. Impression management
    a goal-directed conscious or unconscious process in which people attempt to influence the perceptions of others.