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incompatibility between the roles of two or more statuses held by an individual
- Addresses the subjective meaning of human acts and processes through which people come to develop and communicate shared meanings.
- George Herbert Mead
focus on the definition of the situation for the people involved
The self consists of "I" and "Me"
- The self we are aware of.
- The self and self concept emerge through participation in groups
Surveying a group of people from an entire population.
Caused by incompatible role demands within a single status.
- Pertains to the senses
- things we can observe
- objective data
- (temp, time, color, etc)
Looking Glass Self
- We imagine how we appear to others
- We imagine how others judge our appearance
- we develop feelings about, and responses to, these judgements
- The first sociological perspective
- addresses the question of social organization and how it's maintained
What are the three assumptions behind functionalism?
What's the function?
- 2nd sociological perspective
- focus on points of stress and conflict in society
- Karl Marx
- Owners doing well because the workers are not doing well
What are the three assumptions underlying conflict?
- structural enequality
- social change
Ask who benefits?
- Study what is, not what should be
- the observer should NOT mix own values with observations
- Max Weber
- Sets of norms specifying the rights and obligation associated with status
- Roles are made from a bundle of norms
- If you know someones status you can predict their behavior or role.
Explain the differences between the two perspectives of institutions
- Functionalist: How particular institutions maintain healthy societies; stability, harmony, and evolution
- Conflict: How certain groups of people benefit from existing social arrangements at the expense of other groups of people.
- Part of the "self"
- Self as a subject
- Spontaneous self
- "I am going to the store"
- Part of the Self
- Self as an object
- Self in social context
- "That's me going to the store"
- Focuses on social interactions among individuals.
- Narrow view
- Symbolic Interactionism
- Part of symbolic interactionism
- Symbols point to objects
- Consist of: goals, things, and social acts
In symbolic interactionism, objects are made of three things:
- Focuses on social strutcures, organizations, and relationships between them.
- Conflict theory and Functionalism
Conflict theory and functionalism fit under which group? Macrosociology/Microsociology
Symbolic interactionism fits under which group? Macrobiology/Microbiology
What are the three research methods?
What are the strengths and weaknesses of Fieldwork- participant observation?
- Strengths: provide a details, "thick description" of people being observed
- Weakness: lack of theoretical generalization ability
What are the strengths and weaknesses of surveys?
- typically done by taking a random sample from an entire population
- Strengths: works well for technology, good way to find out what a large amount of people think about a specific set of topics
- Weakness: you don't know much else about the population
What are the strengths and weaknesses of Experiments?
- For experiments, the researcher manipulates independent variables to test theories of cause and effect.
- Strengths: excellent for testing hypothesis about cause and effect
- Weaknesses: possibly unethical, subjects behave differently when under observation, omit factors that would influence the same behavior in real life
- ability to see personal troubles are public issues
- Our behaviors collectively make public issues.
- following a set of norms associated with a status
- Viewing ourselves are we believe others do
- We "read" our cues from our environment to establish our role
- Fixed by birth & inheratance
- unalterable in one's lifetime
- ie. gender, age, son, daughter
- one that someone can obtain in a lifetime
- ie: father, student, husband,
Norm of reciprocity:
Return favors with a balance of obligation
- Shared rules of conduct that specify how people ought to feel, think, and act.
- Two types: Folkways & Mores
What are the two types of norms?
Those whose perspective we use most often in viewing ourselves.
What makes sociology a science?
Study of empirical data in a systemic fashion
What is language?
Language is a set of symbols that define situations with goals, things, and social acts
- focus on the definition of a situation
- the communication of shared meaning
the process of learning new attitudes and norms required for a new social role
- Conflict Theory
- Materialist conception of history
- People's class positions depend on their relationship to the means of production
- Two classes: Bourgeoisie and Proletariot
Max believed that..
Inequality heavily influences the way society develops and influences individual behaviors.
- Rationalization of Society
- Value Free Sociolog-what is not what should be
- Studied the difference between post and pre industrial societies.
- Post industrial societies tend to be more rational.
- McDonaldization of society
Rationalization has 4 dimensions (Weber):
- Nonhuman technology
- Social facts: externality and ability to constrain behaviors
- Wrote "Suicide"
- Studied Marx
- Interested in what attracts people together
- If you study the social facts, you will find the cohesion
- Academic discipline
- The study of the biological basis of all forms of human behavior
- Nature vs Nurture
The variable being changed and observed
The result that is being tested
- The rules and tools of society
- the total way of live shared by members of a society
all the physical products of a society
the process of learning the roles, statuses, and values necessary for participation in social institutions
Goals of Research Process
- Finding correlations not causal relationships
- gather data, find patterns, generate theories, test hypothesis
- Requires that each cultural trait be evaluated in the context of it's own culture
- Value-free sociology (Weber)
The belief that your own culture is the standard
- Statuses are the characters in the play
- Roles are the scripts
- A specialized position within a group or structure
- Ascribed or achieved
- Sets of norms specifying the rights and obligations associated with a status
- A bundle of norms
- The recurrent patterns of relationships
- Group, status, role, institution
What are the four structures of relationships?
Explaination that admits the act in question was wrong, but claims they couldn't help it
Admits that they had choice in the decision, but seeks to explain reason
- Explanation of unexpected behavior
- Excuse, justification, disclaimers
- Happens before behavior
- verbal device employed in advance to ward off doubts and negative reactions that might result from one's conduct
Identity Salience Hierarchy
Ranking of an individuals various role identities in order of their importance to him/her
What are the 4 Social Processes of groups?
Social Process: Exchange
- Voluntary, all parties expect a reward
- Norm of reciprocity
Social Process: Cooperation
group works together to achieve shared goals
Social Process: Competition
A struggle over scarce resources regulated by shared rules
Social Process: Conflict
- Struggle over scarce resources
- NOT REGULATED BY SHARED RULES
Believing and explaining to others that one's current role is "temporary and not a reflection of who we really are.
We exhibit an awareness of other's presence without engaging in direct interaction
When we directly attend to what oher are doing or saying
a polite acknowledgement of the other's physical presence accompanied by social withdrawl
those we intend for others ro read
Expressions given off:
Those we don't intend for other to read and often detract from our intended presentations
The front region of dramaturgy
where our presentation takes place
back region of dramaturgy
where we prepare for our presentation
- answer the question: what's going on here?
- Same as Definition of Situation
6 Main Social Networks
An interpretation of change emphasizing the clash of opposing interests and the resulting struggle as the engine of social transformation.
- Emile Durkheim
- What attracts people together
Factors that influence an event
- Norms that are customary, normal, habitual ways a group does things
- examples: wearing clothes
- Norms associated with strong feelings of right and wrong
- If you break these you are considered a bad person
- Concept that all social and political change is determined by the economic forces of demand and supply.
- Karl Marx
a goal-directed conscious or unconscious process in which people attempt to influence the perceptions of others.