LS 2 Study Cards

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LS 2 Study Cards
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2013-09-20 00:43:04
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  1. The study of organisms (living things).
    Biology
  2. The building blocks of most organisms.
    Cells
  3. All life has a common ancestry and the diverse organisms alive today are all originated from one life form.
    Important Fact
  4. Evolution is a central theme in biology.
    Evolutionary processes have generated enormous diversity of life on Earth.
  5. Life arose from non life via...
    Chemical Evolution
  6. Molecules that could reproduce themselves and also serve as templates for the synthesis of proteins. It is a critical step for the evolution of life.
    Nucleic Acids
  7. Long chain polymer of amino acids with 20 different common side chains. Occurs with its polymer chain extended into fibrous proteins, or coiled into a compact macromolecule in enzymes and other globular proteins. These are the products of genes. It has complex but stable shapes.
    Protein
  8. Enclose complex proteins and other biological molecules by membranes that contained them in a compact internal environment separate from the surrounding (external) environment.
    Membranes
  9. They form membranous films that can form spherical structures when agitated.
    Fatty Acids
  10. The natural process of membrane formation -> 1st cells with the ability to reproduce
    The evolution of the first cellular organisms.
  11. Unicellular organisms that are eclosed by a single outer membrane. ie: bacteria and archaea
    Prokaryotes
  12. Main groups of prokaryotes on Earth today.
    Bacteria and Archaea.
  13. Organisms whose cells contain genetic material inside a nucleus and the mitochondria that power the cell.
    Eukaryotes
  14. In multicellular organisms, the division of labor such that different cell types become responsible for different functions (ie: reproduction, digestion) in the cell. Enabled multicellular organisms to increase in size become more efficient at gathering resources and adapting to specific environments.
    Cellular Specialization
  15. Energy transformations from breaking down other molecules.
    Metabolism
  16. Transforming light energy into biological energy that powers the synthesis of large molecules. It is the basis of much life on Earth because it provides food for other organisms.
    Photosynthesis
  17. A biochemical process that uses oxygen gas to extract energy from nutrient molecules; much more efficient
    Aerobic Metabolism
  18. A biochemical process that does not use oxygen gas to extract energy from nutrient molecules; much less efficient
    Anaerobic Metabolism
  19. Oxygen in the atmosphere made it possible for life to move onto land.
    Important Fact
  20. The sum total of all the DNA molecules contained in each of its cells; the "blueprint" for existence
    Genome
  21. The fundamental hereditary material of all living things. Long sequences of 4 different nucleotides (A,T,C, and G). Stored primarily in the nucleus of eukaryotes.
    DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
  22. The subunits that make up DNA and their sequence contains the genetic information.
    Nucleotides
  23. Specific segments of DNA that encode the information the cell uses to create amino acids and form them into proteins.
    Genes
  24. An error in the replication process of a genome.
    Mutation
  25. A group of individuals of the same organism (same species) that interact with each other
    Population
  26. The change in the genetic makeup of biological populations through time; ACTS ON POPULATIONS
    Evolution
  27. A theory of Charles Darwin in which he argues that the differential survival and reproduction among individuals in a population could account for much of the evolution of life.
    Natural Selection
  28. Structural, physiological, or behavioral traits that enhance an organism's chances of survival and reproduction in its environment
    Adaptations

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