Pharmacology Dr. Brown Ch 1 and 2
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Non-proprietary name means?
Generic name, active ingredient
Proprietary name means?
Chemical name means?
Equivalent chemical formula, after years of patent coverage drug is being produced by other companies "Copy cats".
Powdered drugs pressed into disks or capsules
Chewables mixed with flavoring
Drug forms formulated to be protected against stomach acid
Enteric coated tablets
Designed to release only small amounts of the drug as it moves through the GI tract
Sustained release formulations
Powdered drugs in a gelatin capsule
Designed to be placed into the rectum where they are dissolved and release the drug to be absorbed across the membranes of the intestinal wall
Drug completely dissolved in a liquid vehicle
Drug particles suspended but not dissolved in the liquid vehicle
Drug mixed with fat or oil
Drug dissolved in sugar water
Liquid dose form in an alcohol solution given orally
Semisolid dose form that doesn't melt at body temperature
EX: Dewormers in tubes
Drug dissolved or suspended in an oil base applied to the skin by rubbing
Drug dissolved in alcohol, meant for application on the skin
EX: Tincture of Iodine
Suspensions or solutions that liquefy at body temperature
Drug suspension or solution that is meant to be dabbed or brushed onto the skin
EX: Poison Ivy lotion
Designed to prolong absorption of the drug from the site of administration
Depot/ Repository Drug
Repository solid dosage forms that is inserted under the skin that releases medication over an extended period (weeks to months)
Therapeutic agent composed of specially prepared plant or animal parts rather than synthesized chemicals in a lab
EX: Thyroid supplements, pancreatic enzyme powder
Sources of information (5)
- Package insert
- Reference books
- Compendium of Veterinary Products
- Physicians desk reference
Only by prescription
USP stands for...
Unites states Pharmocopeia
Organization that sets the standards for manufacture of drugs sold in the US
Reason or condition for which drug is to be used
EX: For specific species, for specific disease, at a specific dose
Any effect of the drug other than the intended effect
Ingredient of the drug formulation that includes preservatives, stabilizers, and liquid media into which drug is dissolved or suspended
Glass containers opened by snapping off glass neck, dispose after one use
EX: Vitamin K
The amount of drug that is administered to a patient at one time
General amount that any animal or patient should be given
Extra label/Off-label use drugs
Drugs used in a manner other than that listed on the drugs label
EX: Different dose or route, different species, another purpose that intended, human approved drugs used with aniamls
Drug enforcement agency
Food and Drug administration
US department of agriculture
Environmental protection agency
Responsibilities of veterinary professionals
- Store medications safely
- Calculate doses
- Prepare, dispense and record medications used
Who determines if a drug can be OTC or a prescription
What must be on a prescription label
- Name address, telephone number of the vet
- Name of the client and clients address
- Animal name
- Drug name, concentration, number of units
- Clear instructions for dosage, frequency, route of administration, and duration of treatment
- Cautionary statements
- Specified withdrawl or discard times
What act passed in 1970 has to do with childproof containers
Poison prevention packaging act of 1970
- Cold: not to exceed 46 degrees
- Cool: 46-59 degrees
- Room temperature: 59-86 degrees
- Warm: 86-104 degrees
- Excessive heat: greater than 104 degrees
Which act passed in 1970 has to do with controlled substances
Comprehensive Drug abuse control act
Regulates the possession of drugs that have the potential for physical addiction, psychological addiction and/or abuse
Extreme potential for abuse and no medicinal purpose
EX: Heroin, LSD, crack cocaine
High potential for abuse and may lead to severe physical or psychological dependence
EX: Hydrocodone, Opium, Morphine
Some potential for abuse, may lead to low or moderate physical dependence
EX: Ketamine, Telazol
Low potential for abuse, may lead to limited physical dependence
EX: Diazepam, butorphanol
Subject to state and local regulation, low potential for abuse
Controlled drug log
May be computer log or bound composition
Date, owner and patients name, starting volume, amount used, ending volume, initials of person who used drug must be kept
How long must a controlled substance log be kept?
Mean "cell poison"
Chemotherapeutic agents (cytotoxic) drugs allow exposure though which means...
- Skin from spillage
- Inhalation of aerosolized drugs as the needle is withdrawn from a vial that has been pressurized
- Ingesting food contaminated with aerosol or direct contact
- Inhalation from crushing/breaking tablets
- Absorption or inhalation during opening of glass ampules
How to safe handle cytotoxic drugs
- Mix under ventilation hood
- High efficiency filter mask
- Specific gloves
- Long sleeved nonporous gown
- Dispose of everything in biohazard
- Proper precautions with urine/feces
- Chemotherapy spill kit
Material safety data sheet
Manipulation to produce a dose form of a drug in any form other than what is approved by the FDA
Examples of compounding drugs
- Formulating drugs with flavor compounds
- Formulating drugs into capsules
- Formulating into a different dose form
- Diluting commercially approved drugs
- Mixing two or more drugs in a syringe
Mass measured in what unit
Volume measured in what unit
Length measured in what unit
To determine the dose you will need...
- Weight of the animal (kg)
- Dosage of the drug (mg/kg)
- Concentration of the drug (mg/ml)
TRUE OR FALSE. A precaution is a condition or situation in which a drug should not be given.
TRUE OR FALSE. 10 mg/lb every 6 hrs for 3 days is and example of a dose and 250 mg is an example of a dosage.
False, they are reversed
TRUE OR FALSE. Extra-label drugs can be legally used by vets in animals intended for use as human food.
TRUE OR FALSE. Suspensions must be shaken before administering; solutions do not.
TRUE OR FALSE. Troches are commonly used with vet patients.
False, lozenges are not ideal with animals
TRUE OR FALSE. The R symbol indicates that the drug is restricted to use only by a vet.
False, indicates a copyright
TRUE OR FALSE. Adding acepromazine tranquilizer to ketamine is not considered compounding as long as its not sold to another practice.
False, any mixing of 2 drugs is compounding
TRUE OR FALSE. The use of pill vial caps that are not childproof is illegal in vet medicine because they violate the Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970.
False, act doesn't apply to vets.
Give 2 mg/kg every 8 hours for 10 days is an example of what
Vials are in which two forms?
Most up to date drug information is usually found where?
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