Neuro Exam and Packet Notes

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  1. Interneurons
    Connect neurons to other neurons. Major role in withdraw reflex.
  2. Frontal Lobe
    • Holds primary motor cortex. 
    • Voluntary complex movement
    • Judgement
    • Attention
    • Awareness
    • Thinking
    • Mood
    • Aggression
  3. Broca's Area
    • Motor speech.
    • 95% of people have it in left lobe.
  4. Parietal Lobe
    • Holds primary sensory cortex
    • Perception
    • Short term memory
    • Homonculus
  5. Temporal Lobe
    • Primary auditory cortex
    • Visual perception
    • Musical discrimination
    • Long term memory
  6. Wernicke's Area
    • Hearing and understanding language. 
    • In temporal lobe
  7. Occipital Lobe
    • Holds primary visual cortex
    • Sensory visual intake info occurs at the primary visual cortex
  8. Cerebellum
    • Balance
    • Posture
    • Coordination
    • Complex muscular movements
    • Monitors movement requested vs movement prefered
  9. Right Hemisphere
    • Grasp general concepts
    • Nonverbal
    • Artistic
    • Processing info without looking at entire picture
    • Spatial awareness
    • Anger/unhappiness
    • Perceiving negative emotions
  10. Left Hemisphere
    • Language
    • Happiness
    • Verbal
    • Analytic
    • Logical
    • Linear
  11. Basal Ganglia
    • Base of cerebrum
    • Posture and muscle tone regulation
    • Control motor planning in the cerebrum
  12. Dienchephalon
    Thalamus and hypothalamus
  13. Thalamus
    Relay station for all afferent impulses but smell
  14. Hypothalamus
    • Homeostasis
    • Autonomic
    • Endocrine
    • ANS
    • Controls pituitary
  15. Brain Stem
    Mid brain, pons, and medulla
  16. Midbrain
    Relay area for all afferent impulses but smell
  17. Pons
    • Regulates breathing
    • Orientation of head (head rightening)
    • Has CN V-VIII
  18. Medulla Oblongata
    • Extension of SC
    • Motor and sensory for neck and mouth
    • Controls HR
    • Controls RR
    • Reflect center for vomiting, sneezing, swallowing, homeostasis
  19. Internal Capsule
    Motor counterpart of the thalamus
  20. Oligodendroglia (Schwann cells when referring to PNS)
    Wrap myelin sheath around axons
  21. CNS
    • Central nervous system
    • Brain, cerebellum, brain stem, and SC
  22. PNS
    • Peripheral nervous system
    • Somatic NS and autonomic NS
  23. Afferent
    • Sensory
    • "A"scends spine
    • Spinothalamic
    • Posterior (Dorsal) Horn
  24. Efferent
    • Motor
    • "E"xits brain/spine
    • Corticospinal
    • Anterior (Ventral) Horn
  25. Neurotransmitters
    Transmit info across space (synaptic cleft) between one neuron's axon to another neuron's dendrite
  26. Corticospinal tract
    • Motor
    • Crosses over in brain stem
    • Travels from frontal lobe to anterior horn cell in SC
  27. Spinothalamic
    • Pain and temp (sensation)
    • Cross over in SC
  28. Association Cortex
    • Areas in lobes that link horizontally with other areas
    • Allow ability to perceive and attach meaning to sensory experiences
    • IE personality, memory intelligence, and generation of emotions
  29. Primary Cortex
    Control contralateral voluntary movement especially of UE and facial
  30. Premotor Cortex
    Control trunk and posture
  31. Supplementary motor area
    Initiate movement, orientation of eyes and head, preprogrammed movements like walking and driving
  32. Impaired Left Hemisphere
    • Inability to plan tasks (approxia)
    • Difficulty initiating and sequencing tasks
    • Difficulty producing and understanding speech
    • Impaired motor behavior
    • Anxiousness
  33. Impaired Right Hemisphere
    • Poor judgement
    • Unrealistic expertations
    • Denial of deficits
    • Impaired body image
    • Irritability
    • Lethargy
  34. Parkinsons is closely related to this structure
    Basal ganglia
  35. Limbic System
    • Controls Learning
    • Memory
    • Pain
    • Pleasure
    • Rage
    • Affection
    • Sexual interest
    • Fear/sorrow
    • Hypothalamus part of it; controls primitive emotional reactions like rage and fear
  36. SC ends here
    • L1
    • Extends through conus medullaris then becomes cauda equina (L2-S5 nerve roots)
  37. Spinal Reflexes
    • Withdrawl
    • Stretch
  38. Ventral Horn
  39. Dorsal Horn
  40. Babinski Test
    • Check for corticospinal damage
    • A light touch going from heel to ball of foot
    • If big toe extends and other toes fan out its a positive test usually meaning damage to corticospinal tract
    • Doesn't apply to 6 months and under
  41. Motor Unit
    Alpha motor neuron and all muscle fibers that is innervates
  42. UMN Lesion
    Any damage from frontal cortex all the way to where the corticospinal tract to its end in the SC
  43. LMN Lesion
    At anterior horn, anterior horn cell, spinal root, spinal nerve and out
  44. LMN Lesion SnS
    • Flaccidity
    • Muscle atrophy
    • Twitching (fasciculations)
    • Hyporeflexia
  45. UMN Lesion SnS
    • Spasticity
    • Hyperrflexia
    • + Babinski 
    • Possible clonus (jerking at foot)
  46. Muscle Spindle
    • Sensory organ in the muscle with motor and sensory endings and muscle fibers
    • Fibers respond to CNS with regard to muscle length
  47. Stretch Reflex
    Tap muscle/spindle, sensory info hits dorsal root, goes to interneuron, then anterior horn cell, then immediately back to muscle without traveling up SC to the brain
  48. DTRs Remain Intact Even With....
    • SCI 
    • Paralysis
  49. Somatic Nervous System
    • Voluntary reactions to outside stimuli
    • Skeletal muscle contraction
  50. ANS
    • Involuntary control of glads, smooth muscle, and myocardium
    • Maintains homeostasis, digestion, and circulation

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Neuro Exam and Packet Notes
2013-09-20 00:35:32
Neuro Exam

Definitions and PP notes for neuro exam.
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