Biol 160 Exam 1

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Derek.Vargas1
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235888
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Biol 160 Exam 1
Updated:
2013-09-19 21:48:27
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Microbial Physiology
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Energetics
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  1. Proton (H+) can freely penetrate bacterial cell membrane
    True
    False
    False
  2. Oxygen can freely penetrate bacterial cell membrane.
    True
    False
    True
  3. NH3 can freely penetrate bacterial cell membrane.
    True
    False
    True
  4. NH4+ can freely penetratebacterial cell membrane.
    True
    False
    False
  5. Protein can freely penetrate bacterial cell membrane
    True
    False
    False
  6. The energy in the proton gradient is both (      a      ) and (     b        ). The (       a         ) energy exists because a positive charge (i.e., the proton) has been moved to one side of the membrane, creating a charge separation, and therefore a membrane potential. Another type of energy is also stored in terms of proton concentration. This type of energy that is stored in a concentration gradient contributes to (      b           ) energy.
    • a) electrical
    • b) chemical
  7. (                ) is an enzyme complex that couples the translocation of protons down a proton gradient potential gradient to the phosphorylation of ADP to make ATP.
    ATP Synthase
  8. (           ) absorbed by bacteriorhodopsin can drive the creation of Δp.
    Light
  9. Most ionophores are organic compounds that form lipid-soluble complexes with (                        ) (e.g., K+, Na+, H+) and rapidly equilibrate these across the cell membrane.
    Cations
  10. (                             ) is a commonly used K+ionophore
    Valinomycin
  11. If ATP synthase is prevented by a proton ionophore, this implies that a current of (                              ) carries the energy for ATP synthesis.
    Protons
  12. Under standard conditions (1 M for all solutes and gases at 1 atm), the (                   ) has the symbol E0.
    Electrode
  13. Potential differences are given in volts but work units are in (                     ).
    Joueles
  14. (          ) electron transfer commonly occurs in bacteria that use inorganic compounds (e.g., ammonia, nitrite, sulfur) as a source of electrons to reduce NAD+ for biosynthesis of cell material, since these electron donors are at a potential higher than (                                  ).
    • Reverse
    • NAD+
  15. A respiration-linked Na+ pump (a Na+ dependent NADH-quinone reductase) has been reported in several (                                  ) marine bacteria that require high concentrations of Na+ (0.5 M) for optimal growth.
    Halophiles
  16. The halophiles have a second light-driven electrogenic ion pump, but one that does not energize the membrane. This pump is called (                                  ).
    Halorhodopsin
  17. In fermenting bacteria, ATP is hydrolyzed via the (                     two words                       ) to create the Δp that is necessary for membrane activities such as solute transport and flagella rotation.
    ATP Synthase
  18. Name two ways that a certain bacteria use to build the sodium (Na+) potential.
    • 1) Na+ Pump
    • 2) Na+/H+ Antiport
  19. In the presence of light and low oxygen levels, the halophiles adapt by making photopigments, one of which functions as a proton pump that is energized directly by light energy. What is this?
    Bacteriorhodopsin
  20. If one says that ATP synthase is reversible. What does this mean?
    A proton potential can be used to create ATP, or ATP can be used to create a proton potential.
  21. Respiring prokaryotes are able to couple electrons flow to the creation of an electrochemical proton gradient. Question is “such electron flow happens in cytoplasm.”
    True
    False
    False
  22. The quinones represent one type of the electron carrier proteins.
    True
    False
    False
  23. All the iron-sulfur proteins have the same electrode potential (i.e. the ability to donate electrons).
    True
    False
    False
  24. Some bacteria can use compounds other than O2 for terminal electron acceptors (during electron transport).
    True
  25. You can say that the donation of electron from Fe2+ to O2 is favorable. (Hint: the standard electrode potentials (Eo’) of Fe3+/Fe2+ and O2(1 atm)/H2O are +771 and +815, respectively)
    True
    False
    True
  26. One refers to electron flow via electron carriers in membrane as respiration. If the terminal electron acceptor is oxygen, then electron flow is called (                ) respiration. If it is not oxygen, it is called (             )respiration.
    Aerobic / Anaerobic
  27. The electrons are not carried in the protein per se, but in a non-protein molecule bound to the protein. The non-protein portion that carries the electron is called a (             two words               )
    Prosthetic Group
  28. Bacteria are capable of using electron acceptors other than oxygen like nitrate and fumarate during anaerobic respiration. The enzyme complexes that reduce electron acceptors other than oxygen are called(                        ), rather than oxydases.
    Reductases
  29. Sites in the electron transport pathway at which redox reactions are coupled to proton extrusion creating a Δp are called (             two words               ).
    Coupling Sites
  30. The number of (               ) made for every 2e- transfer to oxygen is called the P/O ratio.
    ATP
  31. Proton translocation takes place at coupling sites when electron travel downhill over a potential gradient of at least(                 ) mV.
    200
  32. The color of green photosynthetic bacteria is green.
    True
    False
    True
  33. All photosynthetic bacteria generate O2 during photosynthesis process.
    True
    False
    False
  34. Photosynthesis happens in the cytoplasm
    True
    False
    False
  35. You can say that oxygenic photosynthetic event precedes aerobic respiration process in evolution perspective.
    True
    False
    True
  36. Photosynthetic bacteria can use UV light for energy generation.
    True
    False
    False
  37. In anoxygenic phototrophs, organic compounds, inorganic (             ) compounds, or hydrogen gas are used as a source of electrons. These organisms will grow(                      ) only anaerobically or when oxygen tensions are low.
    sulfur / phototrophically
  38. In photosynthesis, (                ) is used to drive an (               ) circuit, which drives a proton circuit, which in turn drives ATP synthesis.
    Light / Electron
  39. To grow, all organisms must reduce NAD(P)+ to (                  ). In green sulfur photosynthetic bacteria, the electrons for reducing NAD(P)+ come directly from the photosynthetic (             two words               ). On the other hand, purple photosynthetic bacteria use the DP created by light energy to drive electron transport to NAD(P)+ in (                 ).
    NAD(P)H / Electron Transport / Reverse
  40. The light-harvesting complexes of the purple photosynthetic bacteria are localized in the (             two words               ), while in green photosynthetic bacteria, the light-harvesting pigments are not in the cell membrane, but rather in (                         ).
    Cell Membrane / Chlorosomes
  41. The chlorophylls are substituted (                      ) related to heme. The differences are that chlorophylls have (          ) in the center of the tetrapyrrole rather than (            ).
    Tetrapyrroles / Mg2+ / Fe 2+/3+
  42. Carotenoids perform a function in addition to serving as a light-harvesting pigment. They protect against (                    ).
    Photooxidation
  43. To make NH3 from N2, life chose to use NADPH instead of NADH.
    True
    False
    True
  44. Hypothetically there can be a chemolithotroph that uses Fe2+ as an electron donor and NO3-as an electron acceptor. (see Table 13.2).
    True
    False
    False
  45. Sometimes reduced nitrogen and sulfur compounds are not incorporated into cell material.
    True
    False
    True
  46. Nitrate assimilation requires two membrane-bound enzymes: nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase.
    True
    False
    False
  47. Sulfate reducers are heterotrophic aerobes mostly in aerobic parts of fresh water and in seawater.
    True
    False
    False
  48. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is toxic.
    True
    False
    True
  49. Anaerobic respiration is one way of nitrate / sulfate reductions.
    True
    False
    True
  50. Only microbes can fix nitrogen (N2 -> NH3)
    True
    False
    True
  51. CO (carbon monoxide) can be the sole source of energy and carbon.
    True
    False
    True
  52. To be able to grow on ferrous sulfate, bacteria should transport Fe2+ to the cell membrane.
    True
    False
    False
  53. In the (                    ) pathways, the nitrate and sulfate are used as electron acceptors during anaerobic respiration.
    Dissimilatory
  54. The enzyme responsible for nitrogen fixation is very similar even in the very different bacteria, suggesting that the nitrogenase gene may have been transferred (                       ) between different groups of bacteria.
    Laterally
  55. During this process, the ammonia that is produced via nitrogen fixation is incorporated into cell material by means of(                            ) and (                            ).
    Glutamate Synthase & Synthetase
  56. The nitrogenase is composed of two components: MoFe protein and Fe protein. Both protein complexes contain (                    ) centers.
    FeS
  57. All the lithotrophs, with the possible exception of the hydrogen oxidizers and CO oxidizers, must carry out (                     )electron transport to generate NAD(P)H for biosynthesis.
    Reverse
  58. The nitrogenase for nitrogen fixation is (            ) sensitive and therefore must be protected from (                     ), either in specialized cells: (                     ) in the case of cyanobacteria, or in leguminous nodules, or perhaps by unusually high rate of (                   ).
    Oxygen / Oxygen / Heterocysts / Respiration
  59. Sulfate assimilation starts with the formation of APS (adenosine-5’-phosphosulfate). To make this compound, 2 ATP will be used, so it is not a free reaction. Then why do you need APS?
    APS is used as an electron acceptor
  60. The reaction below is spontaneous.
    (Glucose-6-P + H2O -> glucose + Pi
    (ΔGo’ = -14 kJ/mol)
    True
    False
    True
  61. If you mix ATP and glucose together in a test tube, you will make glucose-6-phosphate.
    (ATP+glucose -> glucose-6-phosphate + ADP, ΔGo’ = -21 kJ/mol)
    True
    False
    False: Requires enzyme for reaction
  62. In microorganisms, ATP is the only high-energy compound.
    True
    False
    False
  63. When ATP is hydrolyzed into ADP, gamma phosphate is removed.
    True
    False
    True
  64. Bonds that have a standard free energy of hydrolysis at pH 7 equal to or greater than (               )/mol are usually called “high-energy” bonds.
    -29kJ
  65. ATP is usually drawn with two squiggles because there are two phosphate ester bonds with a high free energy of (                      ).
    Hydrolysis
  66. At pH 7, the phosphate groups of ATP areionized. This produces (          two words          ) between the negatively charged phosphates, which accounts for much of the free energy of hydrolysis. Reactions during which phosphate is removed from ATP will be favored because the (         two words           ) is decreased as a result of hydrolysis.
    Electrostatic Repulsion
  67. Enzymes that catalyze phosphoryl group transfer reactions are called (                       ).
    Kinases
  68. The hydrolysis of PEP removes the phosphate and allows the enol form of pyruvic acid to tautomerize into the (             ) form. Energy is released because the (             ) form is more stable than the enol form.
    Keto
  69. ATP in the soluble part of the cell is made by phosphorylating ADP in a process called (     three words                 )
    Substrate Level Phosphorylation
  70. ATP can be a donor of (                ), (           two words                  ), and (               two words                       )
    AMP / Phosphoryl Groups / Pyrophosphoryl Groups
  71. Glycolysis happens in the cell membrane.
    True
    False
    False
  72. Glycolysis is reversible.
    True
    False
    False
  73. When bacteria metabolize glucose through aerobic respiration, they do not do (or go through) glycolysis.
    True
    False
    False
  74. Glycolysis generates NADH as well as ATP.
    True
    False
    True
  75. Glycolysis has to be regulated depending on the cellular level of ATP.
    True
    False
    True
  76. Some bacteria do not have the TCA cycle.
    True
    False
    True
  77. Bacteria can use pentose phosphate pathway as well for ATP generation.
    True
    False
    False
  78. Our best friend, E. coli uses (       ) to grow on gluconate and (          ) to grow on glucose.
    Entner-Doudoroff Pathway / Embden-Meyerhof Parnas Pathway
  79. The glyoxylate cycle is required by aerobic bacteria to grow on (       two words          ) and (                      ).
    Fatty Acids / Acetate
  80. List three major carbohydrate pathways.
    • 1. Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas Pathway
    • 2. Pentose Phosphate Pathway
    • 3. Entner-Doudoroff Pathway
  81. Main sites where glycolysis is regulated by small compounds.
    • 1. Hexokinase
    • 2. Phosphfructokinase
    • 3. Pyruvate Kinase

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