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What is a nutrient?
Nutrients are chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy, structural materials, and regulating agents to support growth, maintenance, and repair of the body's tissues. Nutrients may also reduce the risk of some diseases.
What are the six classes of nutrients?
- Lipids (fats)
What are "essential nutrients"?
Essential nutrients are nutrients that a person MUST obtain from food because the body can NOT make them for itself in sufficient quantity to meet physiological needs.
*40 nutrients are currently know to be essential for human beings
Which nutrients yield energy?
- In the body 3 organic nutrients can be used to provide energy:
How much energy do energy-yielding nutrients provide per gram?
The amount of energy a food provides depends on how much carbohydrate, fat, and protein it contains.
- 1 gram of carbs = 4 kcalories
- 1 gram of protein = 4 kcalories
- 1 gram of fats = 9 kcalories
What is energy density?
It is a measure of the energy a food provides relative to the amount of food (kcalories per gram).
What yields energy but is not a nutrient?
It does NOT sustain life. It interferes with the growth, maintenance, and repair of the body.
* 7 kcalories p/gram
The nutrient found most abundantly in both the human body and most foods?
The processes by which nutrients are broken down to yield energy or used to make body structures are know as...
Two important aspects of a diet that will aid in the goal of providing ample quantities of all the nutrients are
Moderation and variety
A balanced diet should include approximately what percentage of carbohydrates?
What are minerals?
Inorganic elements. Some minerals are essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health.
What is inorganic?
not containing carbon or pertaining to living things.
What is organic?
In agriculture: Alive
What are the inorganic nutrients?
What are the organic nutrients?
- Lipids (fats)
What is the science of nutrition?
It is the study of the nutrients and other substances in foods and the body's handling of them.
What are the Dietary Reference Intakes?
DRI's are a set of nutrient intake values for healthy people in the US & Canada.
These values are used for planning and assessing diets.
What is the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)?
The daily intake of a specific nutrient estimated to meet the requirement in 50% of healthy people in an age- and gender-specific group. The EAR is used to calculate the recommended dietary allowance.
What is Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)?
The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are quantities of nutrients in the diet that are required to maintain good health in people. RDAs are established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences, and may be revised every few years. A separate RDA value exists for each nutrient. The RDA values refer to the amount of nutrient expected to maintain good health in people. The actual amounts of each nutrient required to maintain good health in specific individuals differ from person to person.
What is Adequate Intakes (AI)?
A recommended intake value based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of healthy people, which are assumed to be adequate-used when a recommended daily amount cannot be determined.
What is Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)?
The maximum level of continuing daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk to the health of most of those in the age group for which it has been established.
What is Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)?
A range of intakes for a particular energy source that is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients. Expressed as a percentage of totalenergy intake, AMDRs have been established for protein, carbohydrate, fat, and linoleic (n-6) and alpha-linolenic (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges are:
- Carbohydrates = 45-65% kcalories
- Lipids/Fats = 20-35% kcalories
- Protein = 10-35% kcalories
People become malnourished when they get too little or too much energy or nutrients. Deficiencies, excesses, and imbalances of nutrients lead to malnutrition diseases. Which 4 nutrition assessment methods are used?
- 1. Reviewing historical info on diet & health
- 2. Lab tests
- 3. Anthropometric Measures
- 4. Physical Exams
Any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients
*Mal = bad
Deficient energy or nutrients
Excess energy or nutrients
Out in the open and easy to observe
*Ouvrir= to open
A nutrient deficiency caused by inadequate dietary intake of a nutrient
A nutrient deficiency caused by something other than an inadequate intake such as a disease condition or drug interaction that reduces absorption, accelerates use, hastens excretion, or destroys the nutrient
A deficiency in the early stages, before the outward signs have appeared.
Hidden, as if under covers.
* couvrir=to cover
Diseases characterized by a slow progression and long duration.
A condition or behavior associated with an elevated frequency of a disease but not proved to be causal.
Servings Per Day:
- 6-11: Grains
- 3-5: Vegetables
- 2-4: Fruits
- 2-3: Milk/Milk Alternatives
- 2-3: Meat/Meat Alternatives
*Use Oils sparsely
Food Labels list ingredients in descending order of predominance by ...
- Nutrition facts based on standard serving sizes
- Daily Values based on a 2000 kcalorie diet
Nutrient claims reflect quantity of a nutrient
high or low
Health Claim reflects ...
relationship between a nutrient and a disease
Structure-Function Claim ...
reflect relationships between a nutrient and its function in the body
Diet planning principles
- kCalorie (energy) control
- Nutrient density
Providing all the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health.
Providing foods in proportion to one another and in proportion to the body's needs.
KCalorie (energy) Control
Management of food energy intake
Providing enough but not too much of a substance.
Eating a wide selection of foods within and among the major food groups
The process by which food is broken down into absorbable units.
* Digestion = take apart
- 1. Ingestion of food through Mouth
- 2. Pharynx directs food to esophagus
- 3. Salivary glands secrete saliva
- 4. Epiglottis protects airways during swallowing
- 5. Trachea allows air to pass to lungs
- 6. Esophagus passes food from mouth to the stomach
- 7. Esophageal sphincters regulate/prevent backflow
- 8. Food passes through diaphragm
- 9. Reaches the stomach, adds acid, enzymes and grinds food to liquid mass
- 10. Pyloric sphincter allow passage to small intestine, prevents backflow
- 11. Liver manufactures bile salts
- 12. Gallbladder stores bile until needed
- 13. Bile duct conducts bile from gallbladder to the small intestine
- 14. Appendix stores lymph cells
- 15. Small intestine secretes enzymes that digest all energy-yielding nutrients, cells of wall absorb nutrients into blood and lymph
- 16. LLeocecal valve allows passage from small intestine to large, prevents backflow
- 17. Pancreas manufactures enzymes to digest all energy-yielding nutrients and releases bicarbonate to neutralize acid chyme that enters the small intestine
- 18. Pancreatic duct conducts juice from pancreas to small intestine
- 19. Large intestine (colon) reabsorbs water & minerals, passes waster to rectum
- 20. Rectum stores waste prior to elimination
- 21. Anus holds rectum closed, open to allow elimination
- 22. Elimination happens
Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract
The digestive tract. The principal organs are the stomach and intestines
Wavelike muscular contractions of the GI tract that push its contents along
Protein found in digestive juices that act on food substances, causing them to break down into simpler compounds.
The lower portion of intestine that competes the digestive process. Its segments are:
- 1. the ascending colon
- 2. transverse colon
- 3. the descending colon
- 4. sigmoid colon
The uptake of nutrients by the cells of the small intestine for transport into either the blood or the lymph.
Bile is made in the
Bile is stored in the
The semiliquid mass of partly digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum
Main function of bile
All blood leaving the GI tract travels first to the ...
What are the GI hormones?
- 1. Gastrin
- 2. Secretin
- 3. Cholecystokinin (CCK)
Hormone secreted by cells in the stomach wall.
Target organ: the glands of the stomach
Response: secretion of gastric acid
Hormone produced by cells in the duodenum wall.
Target organ: the pancreas
Response: secretion of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice
Hormone produced by cells of the intestinal wall.
Target organ: the gallbladder
Response: release of bile & slowing of GI motility
Top portion of the small instestine
Compounds composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen (CH2O) arranged as MONOsaccharides or multiples of monosaccharides
- * carbo= carbon
- *Hydrate = with water