Understanding Nutrition

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Understanding Nutrition
2013-09-20 01:22:26

Study cards for nutrition class exam
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  1. What is a nutrient?
    Nutrients are chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy, structural materials, and regulating agents to support growth, maintenance, and repair of the body's tissues.  Nutrients may also reduce the risk of some diseases.
  2. What are the six classes of nutrients?
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids (fats)
    • Proteins
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Water
  3. What are "essential nutrients"?
    Essential nutrients are nutrients that a person MUST obtain from food because the body can NOT make them for itself in sufficient quantity to meet physiological needs.

    *40 nutrients are currently know to be essential for human beings
  4. Which nutrients yield energy?
    • In the body 3 organic nutrients  can be used to provide energy:
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids/Fat
    • Protein
  5. How much energy do energy-yielding nutrients provide per gram?
    The amount of energy a food provides depends on how much carbohydrate, fat, and protein it contains.

    • 1 gram of carbs   = 4 kcalories
    • 1 gram of protein = 4 kcalories
    • 1 gram of fats     = 9 kcalories
  6. What is energy density?
    It is a measure of the energy a food provides relative to the amount of food (kcalories per gram).
  7. What yields energy but is not a nutrient?

    It does NOT sustain life.  It interferes with the growth, maintenance, and repair of the body.

    * 7 kcalories p/gram
  8. The nutrient found most abundantly in both the human body and most foods?
  9. The processes by which nutrients are broken down to yield energy or used to make body structures are know as...
  10. Two important aspects of a diet that will aid in the goal of providing ample quantities of all the nutrients are
    Moderation and variety
  11. A balanced diet should include approximately what percentage of carbohydrates?
    45-65 %
  12. What are minerals?
    Inorganic elements.  Some minerals are essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health.
  13. What is inorganic?
    not containing carbon or pertaining to living things.
  14. What is organic?
    In agriculture: Alive
  15. What are the inorganic nutrients?
    • Minerals
    • Water
  16. What are the organic nutrients?
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids (fats)
    • Protein
    • Vitamins
  17. What is the science of nutrition?
    It is the study of the nutrients and other substances in foods and the body's handling of them.
  18. What are the Dietary Reference Intakes?
    DRI's are a set of nutrient intake values for healthy people in the US & Canada.

    These values are used for planning and assessing diets.
  19. What is the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)?
    The daily intake of a specific nutrient estimated to meet the requirement in 50% of healthy people in an age- and gender-specific group. The EAR is used to calculate the recommended dietary allowance.
  20. What is Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)?
    The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are quantities of nutrients in the diet that are required to maintain good health in people. RDAs are established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences, and may be revised every few years. A separate RDA value exists for each nutrient. The RDA values refer to the amount of nutrient expected to maintain good health in people. The actual amounts of each nutrient required to maintain good health in specific individuals differ from person to person.
  21. What is Adequate Intakes (AI)?
    A recommended intake value based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of healthy people, which are assumed to be adequate-used when a recommended daily amount cannot be determined.
  22. What is Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)?
    The maximum level of continuing daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk to the health of most of those in the age group for which it has been established.
  23. What is Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)?
    A range of intakes for a particular energy source that is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients. Expressed as a percentage of totalenergy intake, AMDRs have been established for protein, carbohydrate, fat, and linoleic (n-6) and alpha-linolenic (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids.
  24. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges are:
    • Carbohydrates = 45-65% kcalories
    • Lipids/Fats      = 20-35% kcalories
    • Protein           = 10-35% kcalories
  25. People become malnourished when they get too little or too much energy or nutrients.  Deficiencies, excesses, and imbalances of nutrients lead to malnutrition diseases.  Which 4 nutrition assessment methods are used?
    • 1. Reviewing historical info on diet & health 
    • 2. Lab tests
    • 3. Anthropometric Measures
    • 4. Physical Exams
  26. Any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients

    *Mal = bad
  27. Deficient energy or nutrients
  28. Excess energy or nutrients
  29. Out in the open and easy to observe

    *Ouvrir= to open
  30. Primary Deficiency
    A nutrient deficiency caused by inadequate dietary intake of a nutrient
  31. Secondary Deficiency
    A nutrient deficiency caused by something other than an inadequate intake such as a disease condition or drug interaction that reduces absorption, accelerates use, hastens excretion, or destroys the nutrient
  32. Subclinical Deficiency
    A deficiency in the early stages, before the outward signs have appeared.
  33. Covert
    Hidden, as if under covers.

    * couvrir=to cover
  34. Chronic Diseases
    Diseases characterized by a slow progression and long duration.
  35. Risk Factor
    A condition or behavior associated with an elevated frequency of a disease but not proved to be causal.
  36. Servings Per Day:

    • 6-11: Grains
    • 3-5:  Vegetables
    • 2-4:  Fruits
    • 2-3:  Milk/Milk Alternatives
    • 2-3:  Meat/Meat Alternatives

    *Use Oils sparsely
  37. Food Labels list ingredients in descending order of predominance by ...
    • Weight
    • Nutrition facts based on standard serving sizes
    • Daily Values based on a 2000 kcalorie diet
  38. Nutrient claims reflect quantity of a nutrient
    high or low
  39. Health Claim reflects ...
    relationship between a nutrient and a disease
  40. Structure-Function Claim ...
    reflect relationships between a nutrient and its function in the body
  41. Diet planning principles
    • Adequacy
    • Balance
    • kCalorie (energy) control
    • Nutrient density
    • Moderation
    • Variety
  42. Dietary Adequacy
    Providing all the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health.
  43. Dietary Balance
    Providing foods in proportion to one another and in proportion to the body's needs.
  44. KCalorie (energy) Control
    Management of food energy intake
  45. Dietary Moderation
    Providing enough but not too much of a substance.
  46. Dietary Variety
    Eating a wide selection of foods within and among the major food groups
  47. Digestion
    The process by which food is broken down into absorbable units.

    * Digestion = take apart
  48. Digestion Process
    • 1. Ingestion of food through Mouth
    • 2. Pharynx directs food to esophagus
    • 3. Salivary glands secrete saliva
    • 4. Epiglottis protects airways during swallowing 
    • 5. Trachea allows air to pass to lungs
    • 6. Esophagus passes food from mouth to the stomach
    • 7. Esophageal sphincters regulate/prevent backflow
    • 8. Food passes through diaphragm
    • 9. Reaches the stomach, adds acid, enzymes and grinds food to liquid mass
    • 10. Pyloric sphincter allow passage to small intestine, prevents backflow
    • 11. Liver manufactures bile salts
    • 12. Gallbladder stores bile until needed
    • 13. Bile duct conducts bile from gallbladder to the small intestine
    • 14. Appendix stores lymph cells
    • 15. Small intestine secretes enzymes that digest all energy-yielding nutrients, cells of wall absorb nutrients into blood and lymph
    • 16. LLeocecal valve allows passage from small intestine to large, prevents backflow
    • 17. Pancreas manufactures enzymes to digest all energy-yielding nutrients and releases bicarbonate to neutralize acid chyme that enters the small intestine
    • 18. Pancreatic duct conducts juice from pancreas to small intestine
    • 19. Large intestine (colon) reabsorbs water & minerals, passes waster to rectum
    • 20. Rectum stores waste prior to elimination
    • 21. Anus holds rectum closed, open to allow elimination
    • 22. Elimination happens
  49. Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract
    The digestive tract.  The principal organs are the stomach and intestines
  50. Peristalsis
    Wavelike muscular contractions of the GI tract that push its contents along

    • *Peri=around
    • *Stellein=wrap
  51. Digestive enzymes
    Protein found in digestive juices that act on food substances, causing them to break down into simpler compounds.
  52. Large Intestine
    The lower portion of intestine that competes the digestive process.  Its segments are:

    • 1. the ascending colon
    • 2. transverse colon
    • 3. the descending colon
    • 4. sigmoid colon
  53. Absorption
    The uptake of nutrients by the cells of the small intestine for transport into either the blood or the lymph.
  54. Bile is made in the
  55. Bile is stored in the
  56. Chyme
    The semiliquid mass of partly digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum
  57. Main function of bile
    emulsify fats
  58. All blood leaving the GI tract travels first to the ...
  59. What are the GI hormones?
    • 1. Gastrin
    • 2. Secretin
    • 3. Cholecystokinin (CCK)
  60. Gastrin
    Hormone secreted by cells in the stomach wall.

    Target organ: the glands of the stomach

    Response: secretion of gastric acid
  61. Secretin
    Hormone produced by cells in the duodenum wall.

    Target organ: the pancreas

    Response: secretion of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice
  62. Cholecystokinin (CCK)
    Hormone produced by cells of the intestinal wall.  

    Target organ: the gallbladder

    Response: release of bile & slowing of GI motility
  63. Duodenum
    Top portion of the small instestine
  64. Carbohydrates
    Compounds composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen (CH2O) arranged as MONOsaccharides or multiples of monosaccharides

    • * carbo= carbon
    • *Hydrate = with water