the first stage of memory processing - Information is gathered and placed in a form that can be held in memory
one phase of memory processing which involves holding the encoded information in the brain over time
one phase of memory processing that involves locating and pulling out stored information from the brain
a biochemical change in the brain that represents memory
Neil v. Biggers
Manson v. Braithwaite
in these 2 key cases, the courts have emphasized 5 factors that should be taken into account with regard to eye-witness accuracy
5 factors that should be taken into account while evaluating the accuracy of an eyewitness identification.
the final stage of the jury selection process during which lawyers and judges question potential jurors to uncover juror biases and to determine who will be chosen to serve on a particular jury.
a phenomenon in which people have a more difficult time recognizing the faces of people outside their racial group than the faces of those within their racial group (aka: Own-Race Bias)
a statistical procedure that compiles the overall findings from a large group of related research studies
Weapon Focus Effect
the distracting influence of the presence of something unexpected or posing a great danger.
the unintentional act of misidentifying one person for another as a result of remembering a familiar face of a person near the scene of the crime
the phenomenon of selectively retrieving only some aspects of a memory while inhibiting recall of other aspects
widely held beliefs about sequences of actions that typically occur in particular situations
Postidentification Feedback Effect
the tendency for biased feedback after identification to distort the memory of eyewitnesses
a psychological theory that holds that once a person has committed to a particular belief or course of action, they will be motivated to justify that belief or behavior
a lineup in which the actual perpetrator is there
a lineup in which the true perpetrator is not there
factors that are outside the control of the legal system and that are related to the accuracy of an eyewitness identification
factors that can be controlled by the legal system - most commonly used in eyewitness identification research
Blind Lineup Administrator
the person directing the lineup or photo spread has no knowledge of which person in the lineup or photo spread is the actual suspect
specific instructions given to eyewitnesses during a lineup identification procedure.
Fillers (aka Foils)
the alternative suspects in a lineup or photo spread
lineups and photo spreads constructed such that the actual suspect does not stand out from the fillers.
an eyewitness identification process in which the eyewitness sees one person/photograph at a time, decides whether that was the perpetrator, and then continues to the next person
an eyewitness identification process in which several people stand side by side (or several photos are laid out beside one another) and the eyewitness selects the person believed to be the perpetrator
a technique for inducing a relaxed, focused state in which the subject is highly receptive and responsive to suggestions
improved ability to recall events during hypnosis
a subtle, step-by-step procedure designed to relax the witness and to reinstate mentally the context surrounding the crime. The goal is to improve the retrieval of accurate information while avoiding the increased suggestibility of hypnosis.
in geographic profiling, the location at which a crime may be committed
Behavioral Investigative Advice (BIA)
advice offered to investigators by social scientists
in geographic profiling, the area in which the criminal is less likely to commit crimes
the process of determining whether two or more crimes were committed by the same person
people who kill impulsively by picking their victims at random, acting out of sudden rage or because they hear voices telling them to kill
in geographic profiling, the principle that the probability of an attack decreases as distance from past crime locations increases