Chapter 1 intro to language and language disorders

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Chapter 1 intro to language and language disorders
2013-09-19 21:45:14

454 language disorders
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  1. What are the laws pertaining to special education?
    • IDEA
    • Education for All Handicapped Children (1975), Public Law 94-142:
    •      -Provides access to a Free Appropriate           Public Education (FAPE) for individuals         with disabilities (birth to 22, by Dec of         the school year, you are done with High       School education and adult ed)
    •      -Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
    • *Need to provide the student with environment that is as close to the regular school environment as possible.
    •      -parent rights
    •      -Renamed as the Individuals with                 Disabilities Education Act in 1990                 (reauthorized in 1997 and 2004)
  2. What are the laws pertaining to special education?
    • –Passed by Congress in 2001
    • -Designed to show that schools are making “Adequate Yearly Progress” (AYP) towards all students graduating from high school being proficient in Language Arts and Math by the year 2014
  3. What is the focus of NCLB?
    • Accountability for the Progress of all Students
    • Provide schools in need of improvement with help to get back on track
    • Requires schools in need of improvement to spend at least 10% of Title I funds on Staff Development
    • Ensures that Teacher Quality is a High Priority
    • Using Scientific-Research based-focuses on what works
    • Expands parent options for students in program improvement schools
    •      -Right to transfer to a new school if the         parent requests it, transportation nOT         included
  4. What is the accountability for all students according to NCLB
    • State and Districts must provide the public with information about their schools and teachers in the form of an Annual Report Card
    •      -School Accountability Report Card                 (SARC) in CA
    • State Assessment Results:  based on basic, proficient, and advanced. Results are broken down into race, ethnicity, disability status, English Language Learners, low income status, gender and migrant status
    • Schools and group achievement group goals are compared with actual performance results
  5. Components of Language:
    • Study of word meaning
    • Vocab or lexicon
    •      -depends heavily on environment, exposure, cultural experiences and capacity of each child to learn
    •      -world knowledge-a child's experiential and autobiographical memory and understanding of particular events
    •      -word knowledge-verbal involving and symbol definitions ex: many words for snow
  6. Components of Language:
    Important elements of semantic development
    • – 
    • Synonyms
    • Antonyms
    • Deictic words-reference changes depending upon who is speaking
    • Lets give it a go
    • Don't go there
    • You have to go
    • Go home
    • Go ahead
    • Categorization
    • Humor
    •    -Jokes
    •    -Puns 
    •    -Riddles
    • Figurative language
    •    -Proverbs (Aesop’s Fables)
    •    -Idioms (she’s a peach, raining cats and         dogs)
    •    -Metaphors
    • These also impact pragmatic skills
  7. Components of Language:
    Morphology and morphemes
    • Study of word structure, how words are formed
    • Words that cannot be broken down into smaller parts and can have other
    • morphemes added to them 
    •    -Free/base/root morphemes (mean               something and can stand alone)
    •    -Base morphemes (prefix, suffix added to       base)
    •    -Allomorphs-variations of morphemes may     be spelled same but                                   pronounced differently
    • Ex: past tense /ed=cooked (pronounced t), kissed
    • Morphemes are a means of modifying word structures to change meaning.
    • Talking about languages, the morphology of a given language describes the rules of such modifications.
    • These make languages similar or unique
    • Must take into consideration the L-1 of the person when assessing for a language disorder
    •    -May not have the same morpheme structure
    •    – African American
  8. Components of Language:
    • Greatly interrelated with morphology
    •    –Word order and the arrangement of words      to form meaningful sentences
    •    -Syntax or word structure varies between       languages (ex: Spanish/ English)
    •       -Kernel sentence/phrase or                          base structure
    •       -The house new/The new house
    •  – ALWAYS take into consideration the             structure of the L-1 when evaluating a         child
  9. Components of Language:
    Evaluation of Syntax
    • Should include the 6 types of sentences used
    •     -Declaratives: statements
    •     -Imperatives: commands or requests
    •     -Exaclamatory: strong feelings
    •     -Interrogatives: questions
    •     -Active: subject performs actions of the        verb 
    •         -the student read the book.
    •     -Passive: subject receives the action of          the verb
    •         -the book was read by the student.
  10. Components of Language:
    • Study of rules that govern the use of language in social situations or social language
    • looks at the function: what is the purpose and the context of the utterance
    • significant impact in autism, mental retardation and emotional disturbance
    • strong relationship to morphology
    • functions (uses of language)
    •     -commenting-that's a kitty
    •     -labeling-naming
    •     -protesting-objecting
  11. Components of Language:
    Pragmatics and context
    • Context involves where the utterance takes place, to whom it is directed and what and who are present at the same time
    • direct speech acts
    •     -bring me the ball
    • Indirect speech acts
    •     -used to convey politeness
    •     -will you please bring me the ball?
    • use of too much indirect speech is seen as weak, unsure of self
  12. Components of Language:
    Pragmatics and conversational skills
    • Turn taking (depends on child's cultural and linguistic background)
    •     -Afro Amer don't always follow traditional rule-interruptions permitted due to competition
    •         -listening
    •         -commenting
    •         -topic maintenance
    •         -order of statements/coherent statements and repair of conversation
  13. Components of Language:
    Pragmatics and knowledge and use of discourse
    • connected flow of language
    • how utterances are related
    •    monologue
    •    dialogue
    •    conversation
    • narratives
    •    form of discourse where speaker tellsstory-    talks of logical sequence of events
    •    retell story, events in day (what did you        do today)
    •    cultural differences and experiences must      be taken into consideration
    •    dynamic assessment and observation over    time may be needed to assess students
    •         -looking at the students work over a              period of time
  14. Components of Language:
    • Study of how sounds are put together to form words and other linguistic units
    •     -does not stand alone-is related to the other components of lang
    •     -relationship of speech sounds of a lang
    •     -rules for combining the sounds for making words
    •     -intonation and stress that goes with the sounds and words
  15. Models of Lang Disorders:
    • Medical model
    • determines causes (encephilitis etc)
    • 5 categories:
    •     -motor disorders (cp)
    •     -sensory deficits (vision, hearing)
    •     -central nervous system damage
    •     -severe emotional-social dysfunctional
    •     -cognitive disorders (metal retardation)
  16. Models of Lang Disorders: Categorical-Etiological
    pros and cons
    • Pros
    •     – Helpful in obtaining services and                  educational placement
    •     – Helps label characteristics (child                  has autism, what do we know about            autism)
    • Cons
    •     -Not possible to always identify single          cause
    •     –Doesn't identify cultural, motivational,         social issues
  17. Models of Lang Disorders:
    Descriptive Developmental
    • looks a the child's behavioral strengths and weakensses
    • compared with developmental norms-where is child in comparison to the hierarchy of skills of typically developing children
  18. Models of Lang Disorders:Descriptive Developmental
    Pros and cons
    • pros
    •     no need to look for a cause because you         don't know why
    •     the description of the child's skills leadds to specific directions for intervention 
    • cons
    •     describing the behaviors can be time           consuming
    •         without label, child may nto receive             services
    •             autism, iD = RC (REGIONAL                         CENTER)
  19. Examples of SLI
    • strength in comprehension/weak comprehension
    • strength in expression/weak comprehension
    • defined as language impairment existing in the absences of other clearly defined criteria such as MR, Autism, hearing impairment
  20. General characteristics of SLI
    • 1. Impairment specific to language
    • 2. Slow to develop language
    • 3. Generally do not outgrow it
    • 4. Research shows genetic component (abnormalities in brain structure anD function)-task related mri's
  21. What are some cultural differences to watch for?
    • Asian languages don't vuse bound morphemes
    • African American English has different patterns than standard English expertise
    • If still dominant in L-1 should not consider morphology as a deficet

    • additional items to consider
    • dialects: a variety of lang shared by a particular speech community for purposes of interaction
    •     -dialects a rule-governed variation in a          lang used by racial, ethnic, syntactic, and      pragmatic rules used by a particular              group or community
    •     -reflects basic behavioral differences btw        groups
    •     -although dialects of the same lang may        differ in form, pronunciation, vocab and        or grammar, they are alike enough to be      understood by other speakers