Extensor Muscles of the Vertebral Column

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mandelyn
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235925
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Extensor Muscles of the Vertebral Column
Updated:
2013-09-20 20:49:31
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UCMT Anatomy
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Flashcards for the Extensor Muscles of the Vertebral Column
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  1. The __________ projects anteriorly into the body cavity.
    Vertebral Body
  2. What part of a vertebrae bears the most weight?
    Vertebral Body
  3. The ________ projects posteriorly.
    Spinous Process
  4. The _______ projects laterally.
    Transverse Process
  5. The _______ is found between the pedicle and lamina.
    Transverse Process
  6. The _________ is the most easily palpated bony landmark on the vertebrae.
    Spinous Process
  7. The _________ is found between the spinous and transverse process.
    Lamina
  8. The _________ is found between the transverse process and vertebral body.
    Pedicle
  9. The __________ allows the spinal cord to pass through the vertebral column.
    Vertebral Foramen
  10. The _________ is a hole between adjacent vertebrae that allows spinal nerves to pass through.
    Intervertebral Foramen
  11. What is a facet?
    A place where ribs (costal facets) and other vertebrae (articular facets) articulate with one another.
  12. What are intervertebral discs made of?
    Fibrocartilage
  13. What are the two parts that make up an intervertebral disc?
    Annulus fibrosis and Nucleus pulposus
  14. What is the purpose of Annulus fibrosis?
    It has lots of collagen so it creates tensile strength.
  15. What is the purpose of Nucleus pulposus?
    It is good at absorbing shock.
  16. What is a herniated disc?
    The nucleus pulposus "bursts" out of the annulus fibrosis, causing compression on spinal nerves.
  17. What is Lordosis?
    An exaggeration of the lumbar (or cervical) curvature.

    Note: it's not as common in the cervical curvature
  18. What is Kyphosis?
    An exaggeration of the thoracic curvature
  19. What is Scoliosis?
    An abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column
    • Cervical Curvature
    • Thoracic Curvature
    • Lumbar Curvature
    • Sacral Curvature
  20. DEFINE: flexion
    • Forward movement
    • Ventral surfaces come together
  21. DEFINE: extension
    • backward movement
    • Dorsal surfaces come together
  22. DEFINE: lateral flexion
    • Side to side movement
    • Sideways movement
  23. DEFINE: rotation
    Pivoting/spinning along a central axis
  24. What are the 4 muscle groups of the back from superficial to deep?
    • Spinotransversalis
    • Erector spinae
    • Transversospinalis
    • Suboccipitals
  25. What are the two muscles found within the Spinotransversalis group.
    Splenius capitis and Splenius cervicis
  26. What are the three muscles of the Erector spinae group from lateral to medial?
    • Iliocostalis
    • Longissimus
    • Spinalis
  27. What are the two muscles of the Transversospinalis group?
    • Semispinalis
    • Multifidus
  28. What are the four muscles of the Suboccipitals group?
    • Rectus capitis posterior minor
    • Rectus capitis posterior major
    • Obliquus capitis superior
    • Obliquus capitis inferior
  29. Tight __________ can cause tension headaches.
    Suboccipital muscles
  30. Which of the vertebral extensor muscles extend the head?
    • Splenius capitis
    • Spinalis
    • Longissimus
    • Semispinalis
    • Suboccipitals
  31. Which of the vertebral extensor muscles laterally flex and rotate the vertebral column?
    • Splenius capitis
    • Splenius cervicis
  32. Which of the vertebral extensor muscles rotate the vertebral column?
    • Splenius capitis
    • Splenius cervicis
    • Suboccipitals
  33. Which of the vertebral extensor muscles laterally flex the vertebral column?
    • Splenius capitis
    • Splenius cervicis
    • Longissimus
    • Iliocostalis
  34. The splenius capitis is superficial to the _________.
    Erector spinae group
  35. The splenius capitis runs from the ________ to the _______.
    Upper Trunk and Head
  36. A bilateral contraction of splenius capitis causes _______.
    extension of the head
  37. A unilateral contraction of splenius capitis causes ________________.
    lateral flexion and rotation of the head
  38. Splenius capitis
  39. The splenius cervicis is superficial to the _______.
    Erector spinae group
  40. The splenius cervicis runs from the ________ to the ________.
    Upper Trunk and Neck
  41. A bilateral contraction of splenius cervicis causes _________.
    extension of the neck
  42. A unilateral contraction of splenius cervicis causes _________________.
    lateral flexion and rotation of the neck
  43. Splenius cervicis
  44. The iliocostalis is superficial to ___________ in the lumbar region.
    Multifidus
  45. Iliocostalis is the ________ erector spinae muscle.
    Lateral
  46. The iliocostalis runs from the _______ and _______ to the _______ along the _________.
    Sacrum, Ilium, Neck and Ribs
  47. A bilateral contraction of iliocostalis causes ___________.
    extension of the vertebral column
  48. A unilateral contraction of iliocostalis causes _________.
    lateral flexion of the vertebral column
  49. Iliocostalis
  50. The Longissimus is the ___________ erector spinae muscle.
    Intermediate (middle - not medial)
  51. The longissimus runs from the ________ and _______ to the _______ along the ___________.
    Sacrum, Ilium, Head and Transverse Processes
  52. A bilateral contraction of the longissimus causes ___________.
    extension of vertebral column and head
  53. A unilateral contraction of longissimus causes ___________.
    lateral flexion of the vertebral column and head
  54. The ___________ is the only erector spinae muscle that runs from the sacrum and ilium to the head.
    Longissimus
  55. Longissimus
  56. The spinalis muscle is the _________ erector spinae muscle.
    • Medial
    • "Spinalis is by the spine"
  57. The spinalis muscle runs from the ________ to the _______ along the _________.
    Upper Lumbar Vertebrae, Skull and Spinous Processes
  58. A contraction of the spinalis muscle causes ___________.
    extension of the vertebral column and head

    *It does NOT laterally flex or rotate the vertebral column because it is too medial.*
  59. Spinalis
  60. The semispinalis muscle is __________ to the suboccipitals.
    Superficial
  61. The semispinalis runs from the _______ to the ________.
    Thoracic Vertebrae and Skull
  62. A contraction of the semispinalis muscle causes _________.
    extension of the upper vertebral column and head
  63. Semispinalis
  64. The Multifidus muscle is ______ to the suboccipitals.
    Inferior
  65. The Multifidus muscle is the ________ muscle in the thoracic region.
    Deepest
  66. The Multifidus muscle is _______ to __________ at the caudal end.
    Deep and Iliocostalis
  67. The Multifidus muscle runs from the _________ and _______ to _______ along the ________ and __________.
    Sacrum, Ilium, C2, Transverse and Spinous Processes
  68. A contraction of Multifidus causes _______.
    extension of the vertebral column
  69. The _________ is the most important muscle for postural support of the vertebral column.
    Multifidus
  70. All muscle in the body "radio" their position to the brain.  This is called ___________.
    Proprioception
  71. Proprioception is especially important in the ___________ because it is bad if you "lose" your spine :)
    Multifidus muscle
  72. Multifidus
  73. The suboccipitals are directly deep to the __________.
    Semispinalis
  74. The suboccipitals are superior to __________.
    Multifidus
  75. The suboccipitals attach to ______, _______ and the _________.
    C1, C2 and the Occiput
  76. Together the suboccipitals cause _________ and _______ of the ________.
    extension, rotation and Skull
  77. Suboccipitals

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