AGR 275 Exam 1

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Kngaddi
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235934
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AGR 275 Exam 1
Updated:
2013-09-20 11:02:46
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Animal Nutrition
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Animal Nutrition
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  1. What are the six major nutrients?
    • Proteins
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids (fats & oils)
    • Water
    • Minerals
    • Vitamins
  2. What are the three aerobic catabolic cycles?
    • Glycolosis
    • Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Pathway
    • Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle)
  3. What is the anaerobic catabolic cycle?
    Gluconeogenesis
  4. What is Gluconeognesis?
    • Anabolic Pathway of Glucose 
    • Uses energy to build glucose form precursors
    • Requires net input of energy
    • Carbon precursors have to be >3 Carbon for there to be a net production of glucose
  5. What is Glycolosis?
    • One of the aerobic catabolic pathways
    • Needs Oxygen
    • Glucose --> 2 pyruvate + 6 net ATP
  6. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Pathway
    • Catabolic Pathway
    • Needs Oxygen 
    • 2 pyruvate --> 2 acetly CoA + CO2 +2.5 net ATP
  7. Krebs Cycle
    • catabolic Pathway
    • Needs Oxygen 
    • 2 Acetyl CoA --> CO2 + 20 net ATP
  8. Cori Cycle
    • Without adequate Oxygen, pyruvate from glycolosis cannot enter PDP and Krebs Cycle
    • Pyruvate "rots" to lactate
    • Lactate exports to liver
    • Liver has machinery to convert lactate to glucose
  9. Anaerobic Metabolism of Glucose
    • 1 glucose molecule 
    • Glycolosis --> Cori Cycle
    • Produces 2 Net ATP
  10. Anaerobic Vs. Aerobic Metabolism
    • Anaerobic produces 2 Net ATP
    • 6% of energy produced via Aerobic metabolism (31 Net ATP)
  11. GIT Segments for Pig
    • mouth
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum)
    • large intestine (Cecum, colon, rectum)
  12. GIT Segments for Avain
    • Mouth
    • Esophagus
    • Crop
    • Esophagus
    • Proventriculus
    • Ventriculus 
    • Small Intestine
    • Large Intestine
  13. Ruminant GIT
    • Mouth
    • Esophagus
    • Reticulum 
    • Rumen
    • Omasum
    • Abomasum
    • Small Intestine
    • Large Intestine
  14. What are the Key Features of the Mouth?
    • Mastication
    • Prehension
    • Salivation 
    • Deglution
  15. Stomach Key Features
    • 2 sphincters:
    • Cardiac
    • Pyloric
    • 3 Functions:
    • Storage
    • Gastric secreations 
    • Muscle contractions
  16. Gastric Secretions
    • Hydrochloric Acid and pepsinogen
    • Acidic environment kills microbes, begins protein digestion
  17. Small Intestine Key Features
    • 3 parts:
    • Duodenum
    • Jujunum 
    • Ileum
    • Most of digestion occurs here
  18. Duodenum
    Major site of enzyme secretion (small intestine walls or liver and pancreas)
  19. Liver
    Produces bile which is critical for lipid digestion
  20. Pancreas
    Secretes carbohydrates and proteins
  21. Jujunum
    Active Absorption
  22. Ileum
    Final site of absorption of carbohydrates, protein and lipid absorption
  23. 3 parts of Large Intestine
    • Cecum
    • Colon
    • Rectum
  24. Cecum
    • Blind pouch (comes in and out at same spot)
    • Ceca = plural cecum 
    • Microbial fermentation (VFA's, vitamins, microbial population = protein)
  25. Colon
    • Largest portion of large intestine (water and H2O soluble vitamins absorbed) 
    • formation of feces
  26. Rectum
    Fecal Expulsion
  27. Crop key features
    Pouch for temporary food storage
  28. Proventriculus
    • Gastric juice is secreted
    • Very tiny
  29. Ventriculus (Gizzard)
    • All muscle 
    • Mechanical breakdown of feed (through muscle contracting and grit)
  30. Large Intestine in Avian
    • 2 Ceca
    • Colon 
    • Cloaca (Exit Point)
  31. Reticulum Key Features
    • Honeycomb Pattern
    • Hard wire stomach
    • Connecting point/crossroads
  32. Rumen
    • Large storage unit
    • Rumination: Regurgitate --> Re-mastication --> Reswallow 
    • Microbial fermentation 
    • VFA Absortion
  33. Omasum
    • Many Piles
    • Water absorption 
    • No enzymes
  34. Abomasum
    • Glandular stomach 
    • Gastric juice (HCl and Pepsinogen)
  35. Plant Carbohydrates
    • Sugars
    • Starch
    • Fructans
    • Pectins/β-Glucans
    • Hemi-cellulose
    • Cellulose
  36. Nitrogen Free Extract
    • Highly Digestible Carbohydrates
    • Sugars
    • Starch
    • Fructans
  37. Crude Fiber
    • Poorly Digestible Carbohydrates
    • Pectins/β-Glucans
    • Hemi-cellulose
    • Cellulose - Indigestible
  38. Volatile Fatty Acids
    • Acedic - 2 Carbons
    • Propionic - 3 Carbons 
    • Butyric - 4 carbons
  39. Essential Fatty Acids
    • Linoleic (18:2) an ω-3 FA
    • Linolenic (18:3) an ω-6 FA
    • Arochidonic (20:4) an ω-6 FA
  40. What is a Nutrient?
    Any substance an animal consumed that aids in the support of animal life
  41. Active Transport
    • SGLT: sodium-glucose transporter 1 
    • an extremely effective transporter
    • glucose and galactose into cell
  42. Facilitated Diffusion
    • GLUT5: fructose into cell
    • GLUT2: glucose transport protein 2 
    • low affinity, high capacity 
    • Monosaccharides into circulation
  43. Essential Amino Acids
    • Isoleucine
    • Leucine
    • Lysine
    • Methionine
    • Phenylalanine
    • Threonine
    • Tryptophan
    • Valine
  44. Non-Essential Amino Acids
    • Alanine
    • Arginine
    • Asparagine
    • Aspartic Acid
    • Cysreine
    • Cystine
    • Glutamine
    • Glutamic Acid
    • Glycine
    • Histidine
    • Hydroxyproline
    • Proline
    • Tyrosine
    • Serine

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