Corrections Chapter 4.txt

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Corrections Chapter 4.txt
2013-09-19 23:42:38

corrections chapter 4
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  1. John Augustus
    • "father" of probation
    • bailed out more than 2,000 inmates and children who were awaiting trial - only 4 recidivated
  2. Most Common Correctional Sentencing
    Probation - serving time in the community (limited rights)
  3. Regular Caseloads
    standard probationers requiring no special program or supervision
  4. Intensive Supervision Caseloads
    • higher risk offenders
    • created as an alternative to prison
  5. Special Caseloads
    • offenders with similar issues
    • i.e.: substance abuse, mental illness, history of sex offenses
  6. Standard Conditions of Probation
    • conditions everyone on probation follows (vary by state, but is the same for the same offenses)
    • remain within jurisdiction
    • report to PO as directed
    • maintain employment
    • refrain from excessive use of alcohol (no drugs)
    • don't commit any crimes
  7. Special Conditions of Probation
    • drug or alcohol counseling
    • drug testing (random)
    • mental health counseling
    • non association with certain persons (i.e.: gangs)
    • stay out of bars and poolrooms
  8. Mempa v. Rhay (1967)
    right to attorney during revocation hearing
  9. United States v. Birbaum (1970)
    probation is a privilege, not a right
  10. Morrissey v. Brewer (1972)
    identified due process rights for parole hearings
  11. Gagnon v. Scarpelli (1973)
    extended Morrissey rights to probationers
  12. "Broken Windows" Strategy
    • promptly addressing issues to avoid greater instability
    • minimum supervision - offender can do whatever they want
    • regular supervision - heavy caseloads
    • intensive supervision - watching too close, find everything
  13. Risk Principle
    target resources for higher risk offenders
  14. Need Principle
    focus on needs which could lead to new crimes
  15. Responsivity Principle
    not one size fits all (reactive - case by case)
  16. Dosage
    first 6-9 months of supervision has highest risk of recidivism
  17. Treatment Principle
    integrated treatment plan
  18. Intermediate Sanctions
    • intense punishments (typically surveillance)
    • (i.e.: economic sanctions, intensive probation, "shock" time, boot camps, residential centers, house arrest, community service, electronic monitoring)
  19. Intensive Supervision Probation
    • initiated in Georgia in 1974 to more closely monitor higher-risk probationers
    • watched more closely, which initially resulted in more probation violations
  20. Electronic Monitoring
    • notifies PO if offender is not in authorized location
    • GPS can identify offender's location
    • cost is borne by offender
  21. Community Residential Centers (CRC)
    recognized in the 1980s as an aid to probationers who needed greater structure
  22. Operations of Boot Camp
    • correctional boot camps are similar to military boot camps (usually for juveniles)
    • (i.e.: short hair, shined shoes, uniforms, discipline, exercise, hard work)
  23. Shock Probation
    • short period of incarceration during probation as an intermediate sanction for violations
    • objective deterrence
  24. Net-Widening and its Problems
    • intermediate sanctions should divert offenders from prison
    • intermediate sanctions should reduce the cost of corrections
    • intermediate sanctions should reduce recidivism