Biology 1020 Lecture 1 What is life?

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Biology 1020 Lecture 1 What is life?
2013-09-28 03:08:05
Biology terms

Terminology for University Biology year 1 course
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  1. What is Life? Name characteristics.
    • - Living things exhibit order (pattern)
    • - Living things process eneergy
    • - Living things respond to environment/stimuli
    • * Adjust structure, function behaviour
    • - Reproduce, grow, and develop
    • - Based on universal genetic code
    • - Made of Cells
    • - Regulate internal conditions. (concentrations of molecules, temperature (some), etc.)
    • - Populations of living organisms adapt and evolve
  2. Evolution by Natural Selection: The basics
    • - Individuals in a population vary in their traits
    • - Heritable traits are passed from parents to offspring
    • - A population produces more offspring than can survive
    • - Individuals with traits best suited for the current local environment will survive and reproduce.
    • - The suitable traits will become and more common in the population
  3. Are viruses alive?
    • - Only reproduce in a host cell
    • - Infected cell makes viral proteins through viral DNA/RNA. *Respond to stimuli?
    • - They exhibit order
    • - They evolve

    • "Viruses straddle the definition of life. They
    • lie somewhere between supra molecular complexes and very simple
    • biological entities. Viruses contain some of the structures and exhibit
    • some of the activities that are common to organic life, but they are
    • missing many of the others. In general, viruses are entirely composed of
    • a single strand of genetic information encased within a protein
    • capsule. Viruses lack most of the internal structure and machinery which
    • characterize 'life', including the biosynthetic machinery that is
    • necessary for reproduction. In order for a virus to replicate it must
    • infect a suitable host cell"
  4. Biosphere
    All environments inhabited by life
  5. Ecosystems
    All the living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic ex. light, oxygen, etc.) components of an area
  6. Communities
    All organisms in an ecosystem
  7. Populations
    All individuals of a species
  8. Organisms
    Individual living things
  9. Organs and organ systems
    Carry out particular functions in the organisms
  10. Tissues
    Groups of similar cells; make up organs
  11. Cells
    Fundamental unit of life
  12. Organelles
    Components of cells
  13. Molecules
    Chemical structure
  14. Modern Cell Theory
    • - Cells arise from pre-existing cells
    • - Cells similar in chemical composition
    • - Life's chemical reactions are in an aqueous medium (water is the solvent)
  15. Domains of life
    • - Archaea (Prokaryotic)
    • - Bacteria (Prokaryotic)
    • - Eukarya
  16. Classification
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  17. Grouping organisms shows what?
    Shows relatedness in trees-DNA and anatomy
  18. Common ancestor results in...
    Common structures from a common ancestor
  19. Natural selection shapes...
    Form and function. Size, shape, composition of an organism, cell, organelle, etc. has evolved to fulfill its functions.
  20. Selection for form and function can result in...
    Similar forms in distantly related organisms. Ex. Seal, penguin, and fish. Mammal, bird and fish. But all have similar steam line body shape adapted for water.
  21. Pattern
    • - A regular and intelligible form or sequence
    • - A reliable sample of traits, acts, tendencies, or other observable characteristics.
  22. Mechanisms
    Why and how does the pattern exist?
  23. Hypothesis testing
    • - Performing experiments to test ideas/explanations
    • - Manipulation of a variable
    • - Experimental and Control group
  24. Hypothesis Testing
    • Observation
    • Hypothesis
    • Prediction
    • Experiment
    • Conclusion-> Hypothesis is supported or not supported. If not supported, goes back to the step of hypothesis
  25. Method for hypothesis testing
    • - Use more than one individual
    • - Apply a treatment to a experimental group
    • - Compare to a control group (Not exposed to treatment)
    • - Results support our hypothesis? CANNOT PROVE!