Biology 1020 Lecture 1 What is life?
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What is Life? Name characteristics.
- - Living things exhibit order (pattern)
- - Living things process eneergy
- - Living things respond to environment/stimuli
- * Adjust structure, function behaviour
- - Reproduce, grow, and develop
- - Based on universal genetic code
- - Made of Cells
- - Regulate internal conditions. (concentrations of molecules, temperature (some), etc.)
- - Populations of living organisms adapt and evolve
Evolution by Natural Selection: The basics
- - Individuals in a population vary in their traits
- - Heritable traits are passed from parents to offspring
- - A population produces more offspring than can survive
- - Individuals with traits best suited for the current local environment will survive and reproduce.
- - The suitable traits will become and more common in the population
Are viruses alive?
- - Only reproduce in a host cell
- - Infected cell makes viral proteins through viral DNA/RNA. *Respond to stimuli?
- - They exhibit order
- - They evolve
- "Viruses straddle the definition of life. They
- lie somewhere between supra molecular complexes and very simple
- biological entities. Viruses contain some of the structures and exhibit
- some of the activities that are common to organic life, but they are
- missing many of the others. In general, viruses are entirely composed of
- a single strand of genetic information encased within a protein
- capsule. Viruses lack most of the internal structure and machinery which
- characterize 'life', including the biosynthetic machinery that is
- necessary for reproduction. In order for a virus to replicate it must
- infect a suitable host cell"
All environments inhabited by life
All the living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic ex. light, oxygen, etc.) components of an area
All organisms in an ecosystem
All individuals of a species
Individual living things
Organs and organ systems
Carry out particular functions in the organisms
Groups of similar cells; make up organs
Fundamental unit of life
Components of cells
Modern Cell Theory
- - Cells arise from pre-existing cells
- - Cells similar in chemical composition
- - Life's chemical reactions are in an aqueous medium (water is the solvent)
Domains of life
- - Archaea (Prokaryotic)
- - Bacteria (Prokaryotic)
- - Eukarya
Grouping organisms shows what?
Shows relatedness in trees-DNA and anatomy
Common ancestor results in...
Common structures from a common ancestor
Natural selection shapes...
Form and function. Size, shape, composition of an organism, cell, organelle, etc. has evolved to fulfill its functions.
Selection for form and function can result in...
Similar forms in distantly related organisms. Ex. Seal, penguin, and fish. Mammal, bird and fish. But all have similar steam line body shape adapted for water.
- - A regular and intelligible form or sequence
- - A reliable sample of traits, acts, tendencies, or other observable characteristics.
Why and how does the pattern exist?
- - Performing experiments to test ideas/explanations
- - Manipulation of a variable
- - Experimental and Control group
- Conclusion-> Hypothesis is supported or not supported. If not supported, goes back to the step of hypothesis
Method for hypothesis testing
- - Use more than one individual
- - Apply a treatment to a experimental group
- - Compare to a control group (Not exposed to treatment)
- - Results support our hypothesis? CANNOT PROVE!
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