Neurology Basics

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Neurology Basics
2013-09-21 18:47:52
SLP Brain

terms of direction, planes, major landmarks
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  1. 1. Terms of Directions

    2. At what level do the terms of directions rotate? By what degree? in what direction?
    • 1. Dorsal Rostral Caudal Ventral
    • 2. Midbrain, 90, clockwise
  2. Major planes 

    Horizontal (transverse), Coronal, Sagittal (can also have parasagittal
  3. Define Afferent:
    Carries information toward the CNS (sensory)
  4. Define Efferent:
    Carries information away from the CNS (motor)
  5. What is white matter consist of?
  6. What does gray matter consist of?
    Cell bodies
  7. Define Tract:
    Bundle of axons in the CNS
  8. Define Nerve:
    Bundle of axons in the PNS
  9. Define Nucleus:
    Bundle of neurons in the CNS
  10. Define Ganglion:
    Bundle of neurons in the PNS
  11. The CNS consists of:
    The brain, the spinal cord
  12. The PNS consists of:
    The PNS is divided into the ______2 and _______3
    1. Spinal nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord, this includes all of the cranial nerves except II. 

    • 2. Autonomic Nervous System (heart, intestines, other organs)
    • 3. Somatic Nervous System (Sensation to CNS; Motor from CNS to muscles/glands)
  13. The brain has these components (5):
    • 2 cerebral hemispheres
    • cerebral cortex
    • lobes (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital)
    • Basal ganglia
    • Diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus)
  14. The brainstem has three major components:
    • Midbrain
    • Pons
    • Medulla
  15. The cortex is made of _______ _______
    Gray matter
  16. The core of the cerebrum is made of _______ ________
    White matter
  17. Define Association Fibers:
    Connect different parts of the brain within hemispheres. Example: arcuate fasciculus
  18. Define Projection Fibers:
    These fibers go to and from the cerebrum to the brainstem and thalamus
  19. Define Commissural Fibers:
    Connects hemispheres. For example, the corpus callosum
  20. The frontal lobe is the _______ lobe and is home to the ________ _______ which houses the ________, a representation of the human body in respects to motor control.
    • Largest
    • precentral gyrus 
    • homunculus
  21. The frontal lobe houses the ______ _____ ______ which controls:
    • Primary motor cortex, 
    • movement (fine and graded) of the arms, legs and face (contralaterally)
  22. Rostral to the primary motor cortex is the ______ ______ which regulates (2):
    • Premotor cortex
    • complex/skilled movements & responsiveness of the primary motor cortex
  23. The anterior portion of the frontal lobe is the ________ _________ and regulates (3):
    • Prefrontal cortex
    • Personality, mood, cognitive functions (reasoning, abstract thinking, self monitoring, decision making, planning, executive decision making, pragmatic behavior, etc)
  24. pivotal to expressive language, _____ _____ also resides in the frontal cortex
    Broca's area
  25. The Parietal lobe is concerned with (7):
    Spatial orientation, cross-modality integration, memory, recognition, emotive expression, perceptual interpretation & elaboration of somatic sensation
  26. The Parietal lobe houses the ______ _______ which is known as the _______ _______ ______ and is responsible for somatic sensation perception. These sensations are recognized by the _______ _______ _______, also located in the parietal lobe.
    • Postcentral gyrus
    • Primary Sensory Cortex
    • sensory association cortex
  27. The occipital lobe contains the:
    Primary and secondary visual cortical areas
  28. The temporal lobe serves in (5):
    audition, memory, comprehension of spoken and written language, olfaction & thought collaboration
  29. The basal ganglia are composed of:
    Gray matter
  30. The basal ganglia regulates:
    cortical output processing
  31. Damage to the basal ganglia can result in (3):
    • Parkinson's
    • Huntington's
    • Tourette's
  32. The Diencephalon is composed of:
    • Thalamus
    • Hypothalamus
  33. Damage to the Basal Ganglia can result in (symptoms):
    Involuntary movements, difficulty initiation movement and alterations in muscle tone
  34. The basal ganglia project information from the _____ by way of the ______
    • Cortex
    • Thalamus
  35. The thalamus relays and processes mostly ______ information and integrates some ______ information.
    • Sensory
    • Motor
  36. The thalamus is not responsible for processing information from the  _______, one of the only sensory functions it does not process.
    Olfactory system
  37. Damage to the thalamus can result in ____________ which is associated with ____________ ___________. It's main symptoms are wild, flinging movements, quick jerks, and tics
    • Hemiballismus 
    • hyperkinetic dysarthria
  38. The hypothalamus controls 4 main areas:
    • Autonomic
    • Endocrine (hormone production)
    • Regulatory
    • Drive/Emotion (rage/agression)
  39. The Hypothalamus controls specific functions like:
    body temp, blood volume, food/water intake, body mass, reproduction, regulation of cicardian rhythms, drive and emotion
  40. The cerebellum contributes to the __________ and __________ and ___________ of skilled motor activity. But does not directly _________ movement.
    maintenance, equilibrium and coordination, initiate

    Ex: picking up a feather vs. picking up a brick