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1. Terms of Directions
2. At what level do the terms of directions rotate? By what degree? in what direction?
- 1. Dorsal Rostral Caudal Ventral
- 2. Midbrain, 90, clockwise
Horizontal (transverse), Coronal, Sagittal (can also have parasagittal
Carries information toward the CNS (sensory)
Carries information away from the CNS (motor)
What is white matter consist of?
What does gray matter consist of?
Bundle of axons in the CNS
Bundle of axons in the PNS
Bundle of neurons in the CNS
Bundle of neurons in the PNS
The CNS consists of:
The brain, the spinal cord
The PNS consists of:
The PNS is divided into the ______2 and _______3
1. Spinal nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord, this includes all of the cranial nerves except II.
- 2. Autonomic Nervous System (heart, intestines, other organs)
- 3. Somatic Nervous System (Sensation to CNS; Motor from CNS to muscles/glands)
The brain has these components (5):
- 2 cerebral hemispheres
- cerebral cortex
- lobes (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital)
- Basal ganglia
- Diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus)
The brainstem has three major components:
The cortex is made of _______ _______
The core of the cerebrum is made of _______ ________
Define Association Fibers:
Connect different parts of the brain within hemispheres. Example: arcuate fasciculus
Define Projection Fibers:
These fibers go to and from the cerebrum to the brainstem and thalamus
Define Commissural Fibers:
Connects hemispheres. For example, the corpus callosum
The frontal lobe is the _______ lobe and is home to the ________ _______ which houses the ________, a representation of the human body in respects to motor control.
- precentral gyrus
The frontal lobe houses the ______ _____ ______ which controls:
- Primary motor cortex,
- movement (fine and graded) of the arms, legs and face (contralaterally)
Rostral to the primary motor cortex is the ______ ______ which regulates (2):
- Premotor cortex
- complex/skilled movements & responsiveness of the primary motor cortex
The anterior portion of the frontal lobe is the ________ _________ and regulates (3):
- Prefrontal cortex
- Personality, mood, cognitive functions (reasoning, abstract thinking, self monitoring, decision making, planning, executive decision making, pragmatic behavior, etc)
pivotal to expressive language, _____ _____ also resides in the frontal cortex
The Parietal lobe is concerned with (7):
Spatial orientation, cross-modality integration, memory, recognition, emotive expression, perceptual interpretation & elaboration of somatic sensation
The Parietal lobe houses the ______ _______ which is known as the _______ _______ ______ and is responsible for somatic sensation perception. These sensations are recognized by the _______ _______ _______, also located in the parietal lobe.
- Postcentral gyrus
- Primary Sensory Cortex
- sensory association cortex
The occipital lobe contains the:
Primary and secondary visual cortical areas
The temporal lobe serves in (5):
audition, memory, comprehension of spoken and written language, olfaction & thought collaboration
The basal ganglia are composed of:
The basal ganglia regulates:
cortical output processing
Damage to the basal ganglia can result in (3):
The Diencephalon is composed of:
Damage to the Basal Ganglia can result in (symptoms):
Involuntary movements, difficulty initiation movement and alterations in muscle tone
The basal ganglia project information from the _____ by way of the ______
The thalamus relays and processes mostly ______ information and integrates some ______ information.
The thalamus is not responsible for processing information from the _______, one of the only sensory functions it does not process.
Damage to the thalamus can result in ____________ which is associated with ____________ ___________. It's main symptoms are wild, flinging movements, quick jerks, and tics
- hyperkinetic dysarthria
The hypothalamus controls 4 main areas:
- Endocrine (hormone production)
- Drive/Emotion (rage/agression)
The Hypothalamus controls specific functions like:
body temp, blood volume, food/water intake, body mass, reproduction, regulation of cicardian rhythms, drive and emotion
The cerebellum contributes to the __________ and __________ and ___________ of skilled motor activity. But does not directly _________ movement.
maintenance, equilibrium and coordination, initiate
Ex: picking up a feather vs. picking up a brick