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___________ – diet that has to complete 2 needs in pet a) support life; and b) allow for reproduction of the species.
___________ - has both properties above but it also contains all the nutrients required in proper proportions to each other nutrient.
- Complete diet
- Balanced diet
Preliminary Exam should include:
- 1. Anamnesis – past and present history
- 2. Signalment – Description of the animal - Sex, Age & Color
- 3. Clinical – Demeanor, Condition, Temperature, Pulse, Respiration, Urine
According to Campbell there are three basic forms of pet food: dry with its ____% water, semi-moist with _____% water, and moist food, which the most palatable to dogs and cats, and contains _____% moisture. Most nutrients come from _____, least nutrients come from _____.
- 3 to 11%
- 25 to 35%
- 70 to 83%
Name 2 things that makes the food more palatable.
Water & fat
___________ is the cost of feeding a pet per day or cost per year.
True cost of feeding
What is the major source of calories in North America.
dry pet food
List 4 advantages to feeding dry food
- 1. cost-effective,
- 2. dry food is convenient,
- 3. easy to use, and
- 4. allows the owner to leave food out for extended periods of time.
3 components of Struvite crystals are
_______ is the #1 thing you need to reduce the concentration of.
- Magnesium, Ammonium & phosphate
Calculate the feeding scale for the following:
40 lb dog
15 lb dog
80 lb dog
- 40lb dog X 30 = 1200 calories
- 15lb dog x 30 = 450 x .30 = 135; 450 + 135 = 585 calories for 15lb dog
- 80lb dog x 30 = 2400 x .15 = 360;2400 – 360 = 2040 calories for 80lb dog
List 3 Factors That Influence the Amount of Food the Pet will Require
- 1. Age – mature dogs require less nutrient intake than dogs during periods of time that they will eat more food are during growth, gestation, lactation, or hard work
- 2. Activity - play, hard work
- 3. Temperature – for each 10o drop in temperature outdoor dogs need about 7.5% more calories. For every increase in temperature of 10o a dog will consume 7.5% less food than normal. Starting temperature for evaluation is given at 70o F. Strictly for outdoor dogs.
Over weight dogs & cats present poor appearance & tend to have more health problems plus shorter life expectancy (e.g. Diabetes Mellitus). Fat dogs have a __% shorter life expectancy
If supplemental meat or scraps fed they should never account for more than __% of diet and then only to increase palatability for increase food intake.
Dogs should receive ___ times water as solid dry food at all times, day in & day out
_____ gm = 1 oz
___ oz = 1lb
___ mLs = 1oz which = ___ Tbsp
tsp = __mL/TBSP = ___mL/oz = __mL
- 28.3 gm
- 16 oz
- 30 mLs; 2 Tbsp
- 5mL; 15mL; 30mL
For the 1st _______ of life the newborn pup eyes remains closed yet during that time the newborn should double their birth weight. As a rule of thumb each litter mate should gain approximately ________ each week during lactation.
- 7-10 days
- its birth weight
If a pup weighs 2 oz at birth what should it weigh in 3 weeks?
_________ is the key nutritional factor immediately after birth.
- 1. fluid for vital postpartum circulatory expansion
- 2. carries protective maternal antibodies that must be taken within 24-48 hours to be absorbed via the digestive tract referred to as passive immunity. Shots are active immunity
- 3. contain energy and non-energy producing components of nutrition in high quantities.
Energy producing components are
Non-energy components are
- proteins, carbohydrates & fats
- vitamins, minerals and water
Feeding Newborns - Schedule can be used on 90% of all animals, however there are always exceptions:
0-4 months – should be fed
4-10 months – should be fed
10 months & beyond –
- 4 times per day
- 2-3 times p/day
- 1 time p/day
Feeding Newborns - exceptions:
- outside dogs, hunting dogs, working dog & pregnant bitch may req 2 feedings p/day
- Great Dane, Dobermans, German shepherd & other large breeds may need feeding 2-3 times p/day until 15-24 months of age.
List the ingredients of a Good Puppy Formula
- 1 cup dry puppy food (i.e. Puppy Chow)
- 1 cup canned food (i.e. ration “P/D” from Hills
- 1 tsp pancake or waffle syrup
- 1 cup whole milk (red top).
- Place in a blender until “Frosty” milkshake consistency. Can be kept in the blender in ref- blend & allow to warm up each time before feeding. No cool food as colic is possible.
How Much Food
Adult = (Dry only)
Adult = (Moist)
What do we feed the dogs at Tomball
- 1 oz/lb/24 hrs – DRY only
- 0.5 oz/lb/24 hrs
- 1.5 oz/lb/24 hrs moist
- 1/3 oz/lb/day
Peak lactation occurs at ______, and weaning
concludes at approximately _________. Adoption should not occur until the pup is
- 4 weeks
- 5 to 6 weeks
- 7 weeks
The Weaning Formula To Dry up the Bitch
1st day of weaning
- 1st day of weaning - not feed the bitch but to give her plenty of fresh drinking water.
- feed 1/4th the normal maintenance amount.
- feed ½ of the normal maintenance amount.
- feed ¾ the normal maintenance amount.
- feed at the normal maintenance level and continued at this level from that day forward.
Neonatal puppies that are unable to nurse should be fed _______ milk replacement formula. Orphan formula doses will vary, but many authorities agree than the simple formula of _________________ is ideal and will not increase bloating tendencies.
- species specific
- 1 oz p/gm of body weight p/24hrs divided into four doses
Newborn orphan during 1st week may be offered about ____ of milk replacement at 1st feeding if they are between _________in weight. This is about ____. This converts to about _______ at each feeding
During 1st week the stomach is probably about _______________.
- 10 mL
- 200 and 300 gm
- 10 oz
- 1 mL p/oz of body weight
- 25 mL p/lb of body weight
When do you Start to add solid foods to the bowl?
Lap reflex is generally around ___ (dogs & cats)/pigs = _____
- 2 days learning to Lap Milk (lap reflex)
- 3 weeks
- 3 days.
How do you discontinue bottle feeding?
eliminating the bottle one-feeding at a time over a period of 2-3 days after lapping starts
When feeding a cat what should you consider about their eating habits?
cats eat based on the shape of the food and odor, developing a routine and need for consistency in their diet.
The average cat weighs ______ with normal activity and requires ____________. This comes out to be about _____ of semi-moist food or _________ of canned.
- 7-9 lbs
- 32 - 34 calories p/lb of body weight p/day
- 3 oz
- 6-8 oz
A dog or cat’s energy requirements may decrease __% after __________; consequently, adjustments in diet may be necessary to prevent weight gain.
- ovario-hysterectomy (OVH, OHE)
Implantation in uterus usually occurs between __________ day of conception.
List the steps from conception to delivery
Puppy & kitten enjoy a ________ that touches the endometrium at 360 degrees. This is different from
- 12th and 14th
- Conception → Zygote →Embryo →Fetus→Parturition
- "zonary placenta”
- ruminants, humans and equine.
3 Factors Involved With Achievement of Optimal Development
- 1. Genetics – most important
- 2. Nutrition – Something we can control
- 3. Care and Management – something else we can control
After bitch is bred, her food intake will increase gradually during the first ____ of gestation. In last 2-3 weeks, feed intake may increase __% over normal maintenance diet.
If the brood bitch is accustom to being fed dry diet free-choice this can continue through gestation period. Normally she will eat ___ during later phase of pregnancy.
Brood bitches may and often will discontinue or reduce their food intake approx. ____ before whelping.
- 6-7 weeks
- 24 hours
Temperature Guidelines for Orphans
Age and Recommended Temperatures
3rd - 4th wk
After 5th wk
- 1st wk = 90-85 degrees F
- 2nd wk = 85 degrees F
- 3rd - 4th wk = 80 degrees F
- 5th wk = 75-70 degrees F
- After 5th wk = 70 degrees F
Primary cause of death in puppies & kittens within 1st 2 weeks is
Primary cause death in pigs within 1st 2 wks is
- hypoglycemia due to not getting enough milk
What are 2 Major guidelines for feeding orphans?
- 1. Avoid overfeeding and
- 2. make any food changes gradually
As a rule of thumb you should feed ______. Allow ________ between the last nursing and start of the milk replacer feeding this gives the dam’s milk a chance to clear the stomach of the neonate. This also make the orphan hungry and receptive to the procedure.
- feed 4 times a day every 6 hours
- 3-4 hours
What is the protein level for ferret diet?
What is the protein level for a horse?
- 35% - Ferrets need high fat & protein diets
Training dogs require ___% protein with ______ digestible calories p/lb of food. Training diet and gestation and lactation diet can be the same.
Not training= __% protein with ___ digestible calories
Never feed a dog a meal immediately before or immediate after ____. This type of feeding can cause the stomach to twist this is called _________ and can wind up causing bloat, gas can escape and that will throw the dog into shock and will kill it. Meals should
not be fed later than ___ hours before or sooner than ____ a workout.
- a workout
- gastric torsion dilatation complex
- 4-6; 1 hr
What is the single most important nutrient in a dog? A __% lose in this nutrient can result in death in a young animal.
Indicate feeding schedule
Self feeding a dry food works well Amt=.
Canned food fed
- (free choice or ad lib)
- twice a day
- 2-3 times p/day
How many calories does a 9lb cat require?
9 lb cat X 34 = 306 calories per day
What are 4 factors that influence the amount of food a normal cat or dog require to maintain good body condition:
- 1. Age – mature cats & dogs require more nutrients.
- 2. Activity
- 3. Temperature - raise the calories as temperature goes down 10 degrees from 70 degrees F and reduce the calories as the temp goes up 10 degrees
- 4. Body Metabolism = older animal slower metabolism can put on weight.
RER stands for
resting energy requirement
What is PN and what does it contain?
- Parenteral Nutrition, the delivery of nutrition intravenously
- contains electrolytes (minerals and water), amino acids, and lipids in a crystalloid suspension.
What is the difference between a crystalloid and a colloid?
- In severe cases of shock or heat loss, warm crystalloid fluids, like Hartmann‘s solution, are administered to restore the circulating blood volume.
- Colloidal solutions reduce the amount of crystalloids required. Colloidal solutions remain in the circulatory system longer than crystalloids due to the larger molecules they contain, being less able to move between fluid compartments until the molecules are broken down over time.
What is the maintenance dosage of PN solutions?
What satisfies additional fluid needs?
Where can PN solutions be bought?
Give an example of a PN solution
- 60mL/Kg/day; about 30mL/lb/day
- crystalloid solutions to maintain hydration
- Through your veterinary outlets
- Norma sols, Pedia sols specifically formulated for sick dogs and cats
What is the difference between science diets and prescription diets?
Science diets is a maintenance diet and prescription diets are for certain diseases.
What are 3 primary things that cause a dog to scratch or itch?
- 1. Fleas
- 2. Sarcoptic mange
- 3. Atopy – inhaled allergies
Alanco survey found that a third of all hospital visits were based upon ________ most of which were due to feeding
- dietary disruptions
- too much fat
Remember the 3 –
3 ____ without oxygen – dead
3 ____ without water – dead
3 ____ without food - dead
________ are filters in the kidney that separate the good and bad components from the blood as it flows thru the kidney. The good is returned to the blood to continues circulation while the waste (Urea nitrogen- bad) is excreted thru the ureter and out through the urine
Once nephron destruction has begun high ______ diets not only accelerate the rate at which function declines but contribute to the elevation of the ____ and other products of ________. So when you have kidney disease what do you want to cut down on?
- protein catabolism
- The level of protein
Chronic renal failure is progressive – __% of the normal renal function has been lost before the disease is diagnosed through routine laboratory procedures
Protein consumption must be limited:
Growing Dogs = __% protein (or bitch gestation, lactation, training, working, or active puppies)
Maintenance Dogs = __% protein
Early Clinical Signs of CRF = __% protein
Renal Failure = __% protein.
Etiologies of congestive heart failure include
The most constant clinical sign of congestive heart failure is a _____ what we call a _____ resulting from a mitral valve insufficiency. Mitral valve insufficiency results in
- medical valve insufficiency, myocardial disease, congestive heart disease, heartworms, tumors
- dry hacking cough; cardiac cough
- pulmonary edema
The primary dietary object in the management of CHF is to
Canned Dry Dog Food = ___ mg of sodium/100 gm diet
Prescription Diet Canine H/D = ___ mg of sodium/100 gm diet
- restrict sodium intake
- 904 mg
- 55 – 90
2 Objectives of Dietary Management
- a. Reduce the body’s need for GI function (don’t feed)
- b. supply nutrients in forms that are easily digested and absorbed. Give cooked rice
How do you Manage the following GI Diseases
1. Vomiting –
2. Diarrhea -
3. Flatulence –
4. Gastric Dilatation (Bloat) –
5. Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency-
6. Malabsorption Syndrome –
7. Constipation –
8. Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 -
9. Feline Urological Syndrome (FUS) -
10. Canine Urolithiasis –
- 1. Vomiting – withhold food 48 hrs
- 2. Diarrhea - withhold food 48 hrs
- 3. Flatulence – avoid ferment foods that cause gas formation (soybeans, potatoes, beans, meat and fish by products)
- 4. Gastric Dilatation (Bloat) – avoid feeding and water immediately before running in the afternoon
- 5. Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency- feed easily digested bland food like rice, cottage cheese
- 6. Malabsorption Syndrome – hard to manage. A lot of these are allergies and you have to establish them – Difficult to establish
- 7. Constipation – increase exercise and give fiber
- 8. Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 is to increase fiber intake and maintain a constant intake of carbohydrates, fat and protein. Type 1 is the lack of insulin
- 9. Feline Urological Syndrome (FUS) is to eliminate magnesium because of struvite crystal lodge in and occlude their narrow urethra. More problems today from calcium crystals than struvite crystals
- 10. Canine Urolithiasis – caused by bacterial infection, inherited enzyme deficiencies. Most of the stones develop in acid urines, but some of the major ones develop in alkaline urine. Lithiasis means stones so this is urinary stone. Some of the stones are oxylate, cystines, silicate, urate type crystals and you need to find out what environment they develop in – for example if they develop in alkaline urine you want to give acid. The best acid is Vitamin C pills. Some breeds like Bedlington Terriers have problems with oxylate crystals
___________ = any kind of infection in the ureter, bladder or the urethra.
Occluded urethra is known as ________.
Both dietary _______ and ______ appears to be involved. Once FUS occurs ______ aids in the prevention.
- FLUT (Feline Lower Urinary Tract) Disease
- Feline Urological Syndrome
- magnesium; urine pH
- dietary management
__% of all pet dogs and cats in the United States are overweight.
Obesity is the most common cause of _________ faced by small animal practitioners today.
The #1 cause of obesity in dogs and cats is
- client overfeeding.
_________ is an excessive accumulation of body fat
________ is used to describe an animal or person that is 50% beyond its normal wt.
4 Causes of Obesity
- 1. Sex alteration - Castration (OVH & Neutering)
- 2. Physiological gluttony,
- 3. Behavioral psychological causes,
- 4. Hormonal or genetic. Genetic influence may be related to juvenile obesity in some breeds
Gluttony can be _____ or _______in origin, and complex ______ or _________ aberrations may be underlying problems.
- neuro-pathologic; behavioral
- physiologic; psychologic
List Two very commonly diagnosed metabolic
abnormalities of obese dogs and how they are diagnosed
- Hypothyroidism with T3 and T4 thyroid test
- Hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s Disease) Dexamethasone tolerance test are now often done in house to determine ACTH levels.
_________ test are now often done in house to determine ACTH levels. Excessive ______ tends to cause the pet to eat and drink excessively and thus gain weight.
- Dexamethasone tolerance
Hypothyroidism also caused
polyphagia and polydipsia.
Purple Top Tube =
Red Top Tube (no anticoagulant) =
- Serum (plasma with clotting elements removed)
List 7 common health risks of obesity
- 1. Coronary heart disease - Arteries blocked due to cholesterol
- 2. Diabetes mellitus - low insulin or insufficient receptors
- 3. Hypertension - blood pressure above normal
- 4. Pulmonary disorders - pneumonia
- 5. Liver, kidney, and gallbladder disease
- 6. Colon, ovarian, endometrial neoplasia (tumors)
- 7. Musculoskeletal diseases, including joint stress, hip dysplasia, and osteoarthritis
Obese patients are _________ risks and are typically _______ and ____________.
- anesthetic risks
- exercise and heat intolerant.
- Modern anesthetic gases developed in the last 10 years has reduced some of these risk but obesity still poses a major concern
How do you Determine if pt is obese
- Do an assessment!
- 1. Take a dietary history to determine the: a. type of food fed; b. quantity of food fed per day/week/month; c. who feeds the pet
- 2. Do a Preliminary General Examination of the animal to rule out any medical condition such as hyperadrenocorticism or hypothyroidism. Can be corrected with Enalapril
- 3. Discuss the subject of pet obesity with your client and emphasize the potential health risks.
List 9 steps to Obesity Management
- 1. enlist the client – the client must want
- 2. set goals – make sure the client returns for monitoring.
- 3. determine daily caloric allotments and show owner how to measure food needs for the patient.
- 4. make the client responsible – daily log on food intake.
- 5. perform regular weigh-ins at the clinic.
- 6. exercise – set goals walking. Go short and slow at first.
- 7. legal treats – measured and health.
- 8. feed several times a day – feeding often reduces begging
- 9. provide a support program – let the owner know about other people on the program that have been successful.
Nutritional Obesity Management Rules to Follow
- 1. Caloric distribution – replacing fats with carbohydrates or even proteins will reduce the caloric intake by 50%.
- 2. Normal levels of moderate fermentable fiber – many pet food companies attempt to reduce caloric density in their weight-loss diets with high levels of non-fermentable fiber like cellulose. Note that this can deprive the animal of vital nutrients like proteins, vitamins, etc.
- 3. High quality protein – when losing weight, it is appropriate for the pet’s well-being to have the best animal protein sources available.
In 1970s, Fox noted that since some young dogs can begin practicing coprophagy as early as ________, this behavior becomes a _____ that is continued into adulthood.
Fox also noted that coprophagy could become a ____ since it appeared to develop in kennel dogs as a result of ________.
- 3 weeks of age
Most authorities agree that coprophagy is a habit that develops out of boredom and is characteristically seen in
one dog house holds primarily
Routine coprophagy may serve as a source of ________ and _________ in rodents only.
- bacterial proteins
Coprophagy in Horses occcurs between ______ may be in response to maternal pheromones. Most common coprophagy is thought to provide needed
- 1-19 weeks of age
- nutrients and induce normal bacterial flora
List 3 ways of Coprophagy Prevention
- 1. A well balanced diet should be readily available ad lib to the animal.
- 2. Antagonistic tastes or emetics like syrup of epica or apomorphine to make vomit
- 3. Eliminate boredom – which institutes progression of the problem. Should have adequate attention and exercise.
What prescription diet would you feed for Struvite urolithiasis
What prescription diet would you feed for Adverse reactions to foods
What prescription diet would you feed for Older dogs at risk for Kidney and Heart Disease
What prescription diet would you feed for Kidney Failure & Moderate Heart Disease
What prescription diet would you feed for Gastrointestinal conditions/Pancreatitis/Colonitis
What prescription diet would you feed for Liver disease, Hepatic encephalopathy, Cooper storage disease
What prescription diet would you feed for Growth, recuperative conditions
What prescription diet would you feed for Obesity & Lymphagiectasia
What prescription diet would you feed for Dissolution of struvite crystals
What prescription diet would you feed for Urolithiasis, Ca+ oxylate, Urate & crystine crystals
What prescription diet would you feed for Diabetes Mellitus, Colitis, Constipation, Obesity, hyperlipedemia