EXAM 1

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RadTherapy
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236066
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EXAM 1
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2013-09-21 21:56:57
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EXAM 1
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  1. WHO DISCOVERED X-RAYS

    WHEN
    WILHELM CONRAD ROENTGEN

    11-8-1895
  2. WHO DICOVERED POLNIUM & RADIUM

    1898
    PIERRE & MARIE CURIE

    1898
  3. _________ DEALS WITH THE CELL SENSITIVITY AT THE INSTANT OF THEIR DIVISION.
    RADIOBIOLOGY
  4. WHEN IS THE BEST TIME TO DISTRIBUTE RADIATION
    DURING CEL DIVISION BECASUE THEY ARE THE MOST SENSITIVE
  5. WHAT ARE 3 FORMS OF RADIATION PROTECTION
    TIME (DECREASE)

    DISTANCE (INCREASE)

    SHEILDING (INCREASE)
  6. LINEAR ACCELERATOR'S WAS DEVELOPED IN _____ BY WIDEROE TO ______ ______ _____
    1928

    ACCELERATE HEAVY IONS
  7. SOTOPES HAVE THE SAME NUMBER OF
    PROTONS
  8. COLBALT 60 HAS A  HALF LIFE OF
    5.26 YEARS
  9. MAXIMUM DOSE IS ALSO KNOWN AS
    TISSUE TOLERANCE
  10. A ______ ______ IS CAPABLE FO DUPLICATING THE GEOMETRY AND MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS OF THE RADATION TREATMETN MACHINE.
    CONVENTIONAL SIM

    DOES EVERYTHING BUT TREAT
  11. A ______ _______ PROVIDES A 3-DIMENSIONAL ASPECT TO TREATMENT PLANNING * ALLOWS US TO SEE THE PATIENTS SHAPE & TUMOR*
    DETERMINES THE TRUE VOLUME, LOCATION AND VIEW THE OAR
    CT SIM
  12. _______ IS BASICALLY OUTLINIGN ORGANS & TUMOR VOLUME
    CONTOURING
  13. WHAT DIRECTION IS THE X AXIS
    LEFT TO RIGHT
  14. WHAT DIRECTION IS THE Y AXIS
    UP & DOWN
  15. WHT DIRECTION IS THE Z AXIS
    ANTERIOR TO POSTERIOR
  16. WHAT DOES MLC STAND FOR
    MULTI-LEAF COLLIMATOR
  17. WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO ATTENUATE
    IT ABSORBS AS IT GOES THROUGH
  18. 1 INCH =
    2.54 CM
  19. SYMETRICAL JAWS MEAN ___________-
    JAWS MOVE AT THE SAME TIME
  20. ASYMETRICAL JAWS MEAN =
    INDEPENDENT MOVING JAWS
  21. THE DOSE DELIVERED TO A MEDIUM (PATIENT) DEPENDS ON 6 THINGS:
    • *DEPTH OF CALCULATION POINT BELOW THE SURFACE
    • *PETETRATING POWER OF THE BEAM
    • *TYPE OF TISSUE
    • * SSD
    • *FIELD SIZE
    • *COLLIMATOR DESIGN
  22. WHAT DOES SSD STAND FOR
    SOURCE TO SKIN DISTANCE

    OR

    SOURCE TO SURFACE DISTANCE
  23. THE LARGEST FIELD SIZE ON A TREATMENT MACHINE IS
    40 * 40
  24. THE UNIT OF DOSE IS
    CENTIGRAY OR GRAY
  25. ABSORBED DOSE IS IN THE
    TISSUE
  26. EXPOSED DOSE IS IN THE
    AIR
  27. ENERGY / 4 =
    D-MAX
  28. ______ IS THE ENERGY DEPOSITED AT A POINT IN A SMALL FIXED WEIGHT OF THE MATERIAL SURROUNDING THE POINT IN QUESTION
    DOSE
  29. WHAT AR 3 METHODS OF DOSE DETERMINATION
    * IONIZATION CHAMBERS

    * TLD'S

    * PHOTOGRAPHIC FILMS
  30. ___ ___ ___ IS THE REGION BETWEEN THE SURFACE AND D-MAX
    MAXIMUM ELECTRONIC BUILDUP

    THIS IS THE BUILDUP REGION IN THE PATIENT
  31. tHE THICKNESS OF MATERIAL THAT REDUCES THE INTENSITY OF THE BEAM TO HALF OF ITS ORGINAL VALUE.
    HVT - HALF VALUE THICKNESS
  32. THE ___ EXPRESSES THE PENETRATION, QUALITY OR HARDNESS OF A BEAM
    HVT
  33. ___ ____ INCREASE WITH INCREASED FIELD SIZE AND VARIES INVERSELY WITH THE SQUARE OF THE DISTANCE
    DOSE RATES
  34. THE ABSORBED DOSE AT A GIVEN DEPTH EXPRESSED AS A PERCENTAGE OF THE ABSORBED DOSE AT A REFERENCE DEPTH ONTHE CENTRAL AXIS OF THE FIELD
    • PDD
    • PERCENTAGE DEPTH DOSE
  35. THE RATIO OF THE DOSE AT A GIVEN POINT IN A MEDIUM TO THE DOSE AT THE SAME POINT IN FREE SPACE
    • TAR
    • TISSUE AIR RATIO
  36. THE RATIO OF DOSE AT A SPECIFIED POINTIN TISSUE OR IN A PHANTOM TO THE DOSE AT THE SAME DISTANCE IN THE BEAM AT A REFERNCE DEPTH, USUALLY 5CM.
    • TPR
    • TISSUE PHANTOM RATIO
  37. THE RATIO OF THE DOSE AT A SPECIFIED POINT IN TISSUE OR INA PHANTOM TO THE DOSE AT THE SAME POINTWHEN IT IS AT THE DEPTH OF MAXIMUM DOSE
    • TMR
    • TISSUE MAXIMUM RATIO
  38. THE RATIO OF SCATTERED DOSE AT A GIVEN POINT IN A MEDIUM TO DOSE IN AIR AT THAT SAME POINT
    • SAR
    • SCATTERED AIR RATIO
  39. THE RATIO OF THE SCATTERED DOSE AT A DESIGNATED POINT N A PHANTOM TO THE EFFECTIVE PRIMARY DOSE AT THE SAME POINT AT THE REFERENCE DEPTH OF MAXIMUM DOSE
    • SMR
    • SCATTERED MAXIMUM RATIO
  40. TH REGION NEAR THE EDGE OF THE FIELD MARGIN WHERE THE DOSE FALLS OFF RAPIDLY IS CALLED THE
    PENUMBRA
  41. ________ HAS THE LARGEST PNEUMBRA
    COBALT 60
  42. JUST THE X AND Y DIMENSIONS IS CONSIDERED
    2-D
  43. X, Y, AND Z IS CONSIDERED
    3-D
  44. X,Y,Z & RESPIRATORY GATING IS CONSIDERED
    4-D
  45. RT,T STANDS FOR
    REGISTERED TECHNOLIGIST, RADIATION THERAPY
  46. TREATMENT MACHINES ARE CALIBRATED AT
    100 CM
  47. SSD + DEPTH =
    • SAD
    • SOURCE TO AXIS DISTANCE
  48. EPI STANDS FOR
    ELECTRONIC PORTAL IMAGING
  49. OBI STANDS FOR
    ON BOARD IMAGING
  50. WEDGES ARE ALSO KNOWN AS
    FILTERS
  51. THE ANGLE THROUGH WHICH AN ISODOSE CURVE IS TILTED AT THE CENTRAL AXIS OF THE BEAM AT A SPECIFIED DEPTH IS THE ____ ____
    WEDGE ANGLE
  52. WHERE THE BEAMS COME TOGETHER OR ANY AREA THAT GETS MORE THAN 100% OF THE DOSE IS CALLED A
    HOT SPOT
  53. AN ACCURATE METHOD OF CALCULATING THE CHANGE IN %DD FOR SMALL FIELDS, THERE THE SCATTER COMPONENT IS SMALL IS THE ________
    MAYNOERD F FACTOR
  54. THE INCREASE OF %DD WITH INCREASED DISTANCE CAN BE DETERMINED USING THE ______________
    MAYNOERD F FACTOR
  55. WITH ELECTRONS THE ENERGY (MeV) SHOULD BE 3X THE ______________
    MAXIMUM DEPTH OF THE TUMOR

    EX: A 3 CM TX DEPTH OF THE TUMOR A 9MeV ELECTRON BEAM SHOULD BE USED
  56. ELECTRON ENERGY DETERMINATION

    90% MULTIPLE THE DEPTH OF THE TUMOR BY _____
    4
  57. ELECTRON ENERGY DETERMINATION

    80% MUTIPLE THE DEPTH OF THE TUMOR BY
    3
  58. ELECTRON ENERGY DETERMINATION

    RULE OF THUMB
    MULTIPLY THE DEPTH OF THE TUMOR BY
    3
  59. ENERGY DIVIDED BY 4 =
    D MAX
  60. TISSUE EQUIVELENT MATERIAL TO RAISE DOSE TO THE SKINS SURFACE IS CALLED
    BOLUS
  61. A ____ ____ DROPS THE PENETRATION ABILITY OF THE BEAM
    BEAM SPOILER
  62. RADIOACTIVITY WAS DISCOVERED BY ___________
    HENRI BECQUEREL
  63. ____ _____ WAS THE ONLY MEASURE OD DOSE BY WHICH THE EARLIER PIONEER COULD ESTIMATE THE NECESSARY LENGTH OF THE TREATMENTS
    ERYTHEMA DOSE
  64. THAT ONE COULD ACHEIVE THE SAME TUMOR RESPONSE WITH LESS INJURY TO NORMAL TISSUE BY FRACTIONATING THE DOSE WAS DISCOVERED BY
    HENRI COUTARD AND CLAUDE REGUARD
  65. THE MANCHESTER SYSTEM OF RADIUM DISTRIBUTION WAS DEVELOPED BY
    RALSTON PATERSON AND HERBERT PARKER
  66. THE _________ IS USED TO MEASURE QUALITY OF X-RAYS AND WAS INTRODUCED BY BENEIST
    PENETROMETER
  67. IN 1928 THE _____ WAS INTERNATIONALLY ACCEPTED AS A UNIT OF MEASUREMENT FOR X-RAYS AND GAMMA RAYS
    ROENTGEN
  68. THE _____ AS A UNIT OF ABSORBED DOSE WAS RECOMMENDED BY THE ICRU IN 1953
    RAD
  69. ARTIFICAL RADIOACTIVITY WAS DISCOVERED IN
    1934
  70. ARTIFICAL RADIOACTIVITY WAS DISCOVERED BY
    IRENE CURIE & FREDERIC JOLIOT
  71. NOTE;
    THE USE OF BETATRONS INRADIATION THERAPY BECAME UNPOPULAR PRIMARLY BECUASE THEY PRODUCED LOW DOSE RATES AND LIMITED FIELD SIZES
  72. RADIATION THERAPY UNITS OPERATING ATAPPROXIAMATELY 50 TO 120 kVp ARE REFERRED TO AS
    SUPERFICIAL UNTIS
  73. THE ___ ____ ____ IS THE THICKNESS OF A GIVEN MATERIAL THAT, WHEN INTRODUCED INTO THE PATH OF THE BEAM REDUCES THE INTENSITY OF THE BEAM TO ONE HALF ITS ORGINAL VALUE 
    HALF VALUE THICKNESS (HVT)
  74. NOTE

    INSERTION OF ALUMINUM, COPPER, AND TIN FILTERS INTO THE X-RAY BEAM CAUSES LOW ENERGY X-RAYS TO BE ABSORBED
  75. ________ XRAYS USUALLY OPERATE AT 50 - 70 CM OF SOURCE-SURFACE DISTANCE (SSD)
    ORTHOVOLTAGE
  76. ________ X-RAYS UNITS USUALLY OPERATE IN TE RANGE IN 150 T0 500 kVp
    ORTHOVOLTAGE
  77. __________ X-RAY BEAMS ARE GENERALLY MORE PENETRATING THAN SUPERFICIAL BEAMS
    ORTHOVOLTAGE
  78. NOTE

    LINEAR ACCELERATORS WERE FIRST DEVELOPED FOLLOWING WORLD WAR II
  79. _____ _____ PRODUCE HIGH ENERGY BEAMS BY ACCELRATING CHARGED PARTICLES IN A LINEAR TUBE
    LINEAR ACCELERATOR
  80. WHEN USING ELECTRONS WHY ARE CONES THAT EXTEND COLOSE TO THE PATIENTS SKIN USED
    BECAUSE ELECTRONS SCATTER READILY
  81. WHAT DOES A COLIMATOR DO?
    DEFINE THE BEAM
  82. THE PHOTON BEAM FROMA LINEAR ACCELERATOR IS INTERCEPTED BY iONIZATION CHAMBERS AND A ____ _____
    FLATTENING FILTER
  83. WHAT REDUCED THE DOSE RATE IN THE CENTER OF THE UNFILTERED BEAM
    A FLATTENING FILTER
  84. THE FIRST COLBALT 60 MACHINE WAS INTRODUCED DURING THE
    1950'S
  85. THE HALF LIFE OF A COBALT-60 SOURCE IS
    5.26 YEARS
  86. THE AVERAGE ENERGY OF A COBALT-60 BEAM IS
    1.2 MeV
  87. NOTE

    THE PENUMBRA OF A LINEAR ACCELERATOR BEAM IS SMALLER THAN THAT OF A COLBALT 60 MACHINE
  88. THE ______ IS THE POINT AROUND WHICH THE SOURCE OF THE BEAM ROTATES
    ISOCENTER
  89. THE SECONDARY COLLIMATOR OF A LINEAR ACCELERATOR IS LARGELY RESPONSIBLE FOR
    THE SHARPNESS OF THE BEAM EDGES
  90. SIMULATORS ARE PRIMARLY USED TO
    DUPLICATES THE GEOMETRY OF THERAPY MACHINES
  91. 1 Gy IS THE SAME AS
    100 cGy
  92. THE POINT OF MAXIMUM ELECTRON EQUILIBRIUM IS REFERRED TO AS
    D-MAX
  93. A HVT IS A WAY OF EXPRESSING THE ______ OF THE BEAM
    QUALITY
  94. ______ _____ IN AIR EXPRESS THE DOSE MEASURED WITHOUT A PHANTOM AND WITH A BUILDUP CAP AT A GIVEN DISTANCE
    DOSE RATES
  95. ____ _____ INCREASE WITH INCREASED FIELD SIZE AND DECREASE WITH INCREASE DISTANCE
    DOSE RATES
  96. IN A FIXED SSD TECHNIQUE THE DOSE IS ROUTINELY NORMALIZED
    AT D-MAX
  97. THE WIDTH OF THE _______ INCREASES WITH INCREASED SD, DECREASED SOURCE TO DISTANCE SOURCE-COLLIMATOR DISTANCE  & INCREASED SOURCE SIZE
    PNEUMBRA
  98. THE DOSE IN THE SUPERFICIAL REGION GRADUALLY INCREASES, OR BUILD UP, UNTL IT REACHES A CERTIAN DEPTH AND THEN FLLS OFF DUE TO THE INCREASING THICKNESS 
    BUILD UP REGION
  99. WHAT IS THIS CALLED

    IF THE TUMOR IS NOT SITUATED AT MID-DEPTH, ITS USALLY BENEFICIAL TO DELIVER A HIGHER DOSE FROMTHE FIELD WHERE THE TUMOR IS SHALLOWER
    WEIGHTING
  100. WHAT IS USED TO ALTER THE DOSE DISTRIBUTION?
    WEDGE ANGLE
  101. THE WEDGE ANGLE NEEDED DEPENDS ONTHE ______ ANGLE
    HINGE
  102. _____ _____ IS THE ANGLE SEPERATING THE 2 CENTRAL AXES
    HINGE ANGLE
  103. WHAT DOES ICRU STAND FOR
    INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION OF RADIATION UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS
  104. WHAT IS THE GROSS PALPABLE EXTENT AND LOCATION OF MALIGNANT GROWTH
    • GTV
    • GROSS TUMOR VOLUME
  105. WHAT IS THE TISSUE VOLUME THAT CONTAINS THE GTV AND SUBCLINICAL MICROSCOPIC MALIGNANT DISEASE
    • CTV
    • CLINICAL TARGET VOLUME
  106. WHAT CONTAINS THE TUMOR AND ADJACENT TISSUES
    • PTV
    • PLANNING TARGET VOLUME
  107. WHAT IS DOSE NORMALIZATION?
    IT THE DOSE AT SOME POINT THATS BEEN "FORCED" TO 100%
  108. PHOTON ISODOSE CURVES USED IN DOSECALCULATION ON A PATIENT USUALLY REQUIRE THE FOLLOWING CORRECTIONS
    OBLIQUE INCIDENCE & SURFACE IRREGULARITIES
  109. ELECTON ISODOSE CURVES USED IN DOSE CALCULATION ON A PATIENT USUALLY REQUIRE
    CORRECTIONS FOR BEAM OBLIQUITY AND SURFACE IRREGULARITIES
  110. THE MAXIMUM DOSE FROMA SINGLE 6-MV PHOTON BEAM OCCURS AT APPROXIMATELY
    1.5cm
  111. THE DEPTH OF MAXIMUM DOSE (D-MAX) FOR ANY PHOTON BEAM ENERGY IS REDUCED BY
    LARGER FIELD SIZE AND OBLIQUE INCIDENCE
  112. A SHEET OF LUCITE PLACED IN THE BEAM TO REDUCE THE DEPTH OF D-MAX IS A
    BEAM SPOILER
  113. TREATMENT FIELDS SHOULD ALWAYS BE SHAPED SO THAT THE BEAM EDGE CROSSES __________ TO THE SPINAL CORD
    PERPENDICULAR
  114.  LONGER OR SHORTER

    IN PORT FILMS OF PARALEL OPPOSED ISOCENTRIC FIELDS OF A LUNG TUMOR, THE ANTERIOR FILED WILL APPEAR TO INCLUDE A _______- SEGMENT OF THE SPINAL CORD THAN THE POSTERIOR FIELD
    LONGER
  115. WHAT CAN YOU USE TO MINIMIZE THE GAP BETWEEN TWO ADJACENT FIELDS
    A HALF BEAM BLOCK
  116. NOTE

    WHEN ADJACENT AREAS MUST BE TREATED, IT IS BEST TO CALCULATE THE GAP NECESSARY BETWEEN THE FIELDS TO PREVENT AN OVERLAP
  117. IN AN ISOCENTRIC TREATMENT TECHNIQUE IT IS ROUTINE TO NORMALIZE THE DOSE
    AT ISOCENTER
  118. THE 20% ISODOSE LINE CURVE OUT AND THE 90% CURVE CONSTRICTS IN AN _____ BEAM
    ELECTRON
  119. WHEN PARALLEL OPPOSED 6-MV PHOTON BEAMS ARE USED IN A 20-CM THICK PATIENT, THE MAXIMUM DOSE WILL OCCUR AT
    THE ENTRANCE/EXIT OF EACH FIELD

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