bio 115

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bio 115
2013-09-20 22:42:55

test1 chapter 1 3 4 and 7
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  1. who are the key players in the golden age of microbiology
    • Joseph Lister
    • Louis Pasteur
    • Robert Koch
  2. who is Joseph Lister
    1st to develop aseptic techniques in medical settings
  3. who is Louis Pasteur
    • "Father of Microbiology"
    • invented pasteurization which is to destroy microbes in products like milk to prevent spoilage and infection
    • developed Germ Theory of Disease
  4. who is Robert Koch
    developed Koch's Postulates-proof that links a certain pathogenic microbe with a certain disease
  5. what are the benefits of microbes
    cheese bread beer wine and antibiotics
  6. what is the proper way to write the Binomial Nomenclature scientific name
    • genus is always capitalized
    • species is always lower case
    • both names are italicized (or underlined if hand written)
  7. what is the binomial nomenclature
    combination of genus name followed by a species name
  8. what are the branches of study in microbiology
    • immunology
    • epidemiology
    • pubic health
    • food microbiology
    • agricultural microbiology
    • aquatic microbiology
    • genetic engineering
    • recombinant DNA technology
  9. who discovered penicillin
  10. who created the first vaccine for small pox
    Edward Jenner
  11. flagella arrangement
    • polar
    • monotrichous
    • lophotrichous
    • amphitrichous
    • peritrichous
  12. polar
    • flagella attached at one or both ends (3 subtype)
    • monotrichous, lophotrichous, amphitrichous
  13. monotrichous
    single flagellum
  14. lophotrichous
    multiple flagella emerging from same site
  15. amphitrchous
    multiple flagella coming out of both ends
  16. peritrichous
    flagella dispersed random on surface of the cell
  17. positive chemotaxis
    movement of a cell towards a favorable chemical stimulus (usually a nutrient)
  18. negative chemotaxis
    movement away from a repellent (potential harmful) compound
  19. gram positive bacteria
    thick cell wall composed primarily of peptidoglycan and cell membrane
  20. gram negative bacteria
    out membrane thin peptidoglycan layer and cell membrane
  21. coccus
  22. diplococci
    in pairs round
  23. tetrads
    group of 4
  24. staphylococci or micrococci
    irregular clusters
  25. streptococci
  26. sarcinae
    cubical packet 8
  27. bacillus
  28. diplobacilli
    in pairs rods
  29. streptobacilli
  30. palisades
    rods are parallel
  31. spirillum
    rigid helix like cork-screw spirilla
  32. spirochete
    flexible helix
  33. types of archaea
    • mathanogens
    • halophiles
    • acidophiles
    • barophiles
    • psychropliles
    • hyperthmophiles
  34. methanogens
    • mud
    • can produce methane gas
  35. halophiles
    require salt to grow and can tolerate habitat with extreme salt concentration
  36. acidophiles
    prefer to live in highly acidic (low ph) environment
  37. barophiles
    can tolerate habitats of extreme pressure-ruptures
  38. psychropliles
    flourish at very low temp-polar ice snow
  39. hyperthermophiles
    flourish at vey high temp-volcanoes
  40. what are the techniques used to isolate pure culture
    • streak plate
    • pour plate
    • spread plate
  41. types of medias
    • liquid
    • semisolid
    • solid synthetic (chemically defined)
    • non synthetic (complex)
    • general purpose media
    • enriched media
    • selective media
    • differential media
  42. liquid
    • physical state
    • broth
    • does not solidify because does not contain agar
  43. semisolid
    • physical state
    • clot like consistency
    • contains a solidifying agent (agar or gelatin)
  44. solid
    • physical state
    • firm surface for colony formation
    • contains a solidifying agent (agar slant or deep)
  45. synthetic (chemically defined)
    • chemical composition media
    • all components and their concentrations are known
    • most commonly used media for research because everything is known
  46. non synthetic (complex)
    • chemical composition media
    • contains at least one ingredient of unknown composition and/or concentration (amount)
  47. general purpose media
    • functional type media
    • grows a broad range of microbes
    • usually non synthetic (TSA)
  48. enriched media
    • functional type media
    • enriched with special growth factors (blood, serum, etc) that the microbe need to grow
  49. selective media
    • functional type media
    • contains one or more agents that inhibit growth of some microbes and encourage growth of the desired microbes
  50. differential media
    • functional type media
    • allows growth of several types of microbes and displays visible differences among desired and undesired microbes
  51. what are the parts of the bright field compound light microscope
    • light source
    • condenser
    • specimen
    • objective
    • ocular
    • eye
  52. what is the purpose of immersion oil
    • direct light to objective
    • prevents refractive lost of light
  53. types of stains
    • simple stain
    • differential stain
    • special stain
    • capsule stain
    • basic dye
    • acidic dye
    • positive staining
    • negative staining
  54. simple  stain
    one dye is used to reveal shapes and arrangements
  55. differential stain
    • use a primary stain and a counterstain to distinguish cell types or parts
    • (ex) gram stain, acid-fast stain, and endospore stain)
  56. special stain
    • reveal certain cell parts not revealed by conventional methods
    • (ex) capsule and flagella stain)
  57. capsule stain
    • a type of special stain
    • negatively stained because the capsule does not react with most dyes
    • uses an acidic dye to stain background
    • the capsule remains colorless
  58. basic dye
    positively charged (cationic)
  59. acidic dye
    negatively charges (anionic)
  60. positive staining
    surface of microbes are negatively charged and attract basic dyes
  61. negative staining
    • microbes repels dye
    • the dye stains the background
  62. heterotrophs
    must obtain carbon in an organic form made by other living organisms such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids
  63. autotrophs
    • an organism that uses co2, an inorganic gas, as its carbon source
    • NOT nutritionally dependent on other living things
  64. what are the types of symbiotic relationships
    • mutualism
    • commensalism
    • parasitism
  65. mutualism
    both members benefit ++
  66. commensalism
    one member benefits, other member not harmed +o
  67. parasitism
    one member dependent and benefits (parasite), other member (host) is harmed +-
  68. definition of essential nutrients and examples
    • must be provided to  an organism
    • macronutrients
    • micronutrients or trace element
  69. macronutrients
    requires large quantity (protein carbohydrates sugar)
  70. micronutrients or trace element
    requires small amount (manganese, zinc, nickel)
  71. what are the different classes of microbes based on oxygen requirements
    • aerobe
    • obligate aerobe
    • facultative anaerobe
    • microaerophilic
    • anaerobe
    • obligate anaerobe
    • aerotolerant  anaerobe
  72. aerobe
    • uses oxygen and can detoxify it
    • gets rid of toxins
  73. obligate aerobe
    cannot grow without oxygen
  74. facultative anaerobe
    • uses oxygen but can also grow in its absence
    • not going to die if its there but it fine if is not
  75. microaerophilic
    requires only a small amount of oxygen
  76. anaerobe
    • does not use oxygen
    • dies in the presents of oxygen
  77. obligate anaerobe
    lacks the enzymes to detoxify so cannot survive in an oxygen environment
  78. aerotolerant anaerobes
    does not use oxygen but can survive and grow in its presence
  79. what is the different between facultative anaerobe and aerotolerant anaerobe
    facultative anaerobe uses oxygen while aerotolerant doesn't but tolerates it
  80. hypertonic
    • more solute in solution vs. fluid in cell
    • cell shrinks or shrivels
    • aka crenation
    • water comes out of cell
  81. hypotonic
    • less solute in solution vs. fluids in cell
    • cell swells or burst (lysis)
    • water goes in cell
  82. isotonic
    • equal amount of solute concentration in both cell and fluid
    • stays the same shape
  83. techniques to measure microbial growth
    • turbidity reading
    • direct microscopic count
    • viable colony count
  84. turbidity reading
    • most simple
    • degree if turbidity (cloudiness) reflects the relative population size
    • the more cloudy the more population growth
  85. direct microscopic count
    • count all cells present living or dead
    • automated or manual
    • enumeration of bacteria
  86. viable colony count
    • involves plating out the bacteria, counting the number of colonies, and performing a mathematical equation to determine the number of bacteria in a sample
    • more accurate because only count living bacteria
    • enumeration of bacteria