Pharm Test 2 level II
Card Set Information
Pharm Test 2 level II
SCF nursing level II
Pharm hormone drugs
Adrenocortical agents are used for what?
to suppress the immune system
Mostly short term use
What are some of the goals of suppressing the immune system with adrenal agents?
Relieve inflammation in an acute stage of illness (rheumatoid arthritis)
Relief of s/s of inflammation
Relief for the adrenal to allow it to return to WNL
Organ transplant to prevent rejection
What is the goal of using adrenocortical agents in replacement therapy?
Maintain levels when the adrenal glands are not functioning properly -
Name the inner core of the adrenal gland:
Adrenal medulla - it is part of the (SNS) sympathetic nervous system (fight/flight)
Releases Norepinephrine & Epinephrine
What does the adrenal medulla do ?
releases the neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine when the SNS is stimulated
______ are flattened bodies that sit onto of each kidney.
Describe the adrenal cortex:
Produces hormones called corticosteroids
Name the 3 types of corticosteroids:
What do Androgens control?
Male/Female sex hormones
Stimulate protein production
Decrease protein breakdown
Glucocortoids are given for what?
Stimulate an increase in glucose levels for energy
Short term treatment of inflammatory disorders
Give body a chance to heal from the effects of inflammation
What are Mineralocorticoids given for?
Affect electrolyte levels and homeostasis
Usually given with corticoids
What are androgens used to treat?
Increase protein growth and red blood cell production
What does GHRH stand for and where is it produced and secreated from?
Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
What does TRH stand for and where is it produced and secreated from
What does GnRD stand for and where is it produced and secreated from
What does CRH stand for and where is it produced and secreated from
What does PRH stand for and where is it produced and secreated from
What is Simatostain?
Growth Hormone-INHIBITING Factor
produced by the Hypothalmus
What does PIF stand for ?
Produced by the hypothalmus
What does ADH stand for?
Produced by Hypothalmus
Where is Oxytocin stored/released?
It is released when stimulated by the hypothalmus
S/S of adreanal crisis:
Shock and even death
Treatment for Adreanal Crisis:
Massive infusion of replacemnet steriods
Constant monitoring and life support procedures
What type of drug is Prednisone (Deltasone)?
What cautions should be noted when giving Prednisone?
Diabetes - insulin dose may need to be increased
Because this a glucocorticoid that increases the prodiction of glucose
ALSO peptic ulcers
What are Beclomethasone and Flunisol used for?
Respiratory inhailent and nasal spray
What does the aldosterone affect cause?
Increase blood volume
Glucocorticoids may cause lypogenesis - what is this?
What drugs may increase risk of peptic ulcers?
Giving Glucocorticoids (Prednisone) with what drugs may cause decreased effectivness of the steriod?
Predisone should be taken at what time of the day?
How is prednisone administered?
What to monitor while on Glucocorticoids?
Increased glucose levels
Delayed wound healing
S/S of Infection
Contraindicated with steroids?
Actions of Mineralcorticoids:
Hold sodium and with it water
Casues excretion of patassium by acting on the renal tubule
name potassium rich foods :
Indications for Mineralocorticoids :
Replacemnet therapy for primary / secondary adreanal insufficiency
Fludrocortisone is contraindicated with what disorders?
CHF - may get more fluid back up
Cardiac disease - the work load of the heart will be increased due to fluid retention
Cautions while taking Fludrocortisone:
Presence of infection
High Sodium Intake = should be avoided, will increase BP
Nursing considerations for Fludrocortisone:
Monitor for edema
Lungs for pulmonary edema
Monitor potassium levels - they are retaining sodium and excreeting potassium
What is the function of dieretic agents?
Increase sodium excretion
Increases the amount of urine produced by the kidneys
Indications for diuretics:
Edema with CHF
Acute pulmonary edema
Conditions that cause hyperkalemia
Glaucoma to decrease fluid pressure
Name a Thiazide diuretic:
Site of action for Hydrochlorothiazide:
Blocks the chloride pump.
Keeps chloride and sodium in the tubule to be excreted in the urine.
Contraindications for Hydrochlorothiazide:
Allergy to Sulfonamides
Exsisting Fluid/electrolyte imbalances, and renal/kidney disease
Caution use of Hydrochlorothiazide with what conditions:
Diabetes or glucose tolerance abnormalities = may increase glucose levels
Adverse effects of Hydrochlorothiazide:
Alkalinized (weakness, cramps, cardiac arrythmias)
Alkalinized urine (increase infection)
Elevated glucose levels
Normal Potassium levels:
3.5 - 5.3
Name a Loop Diuretic:
High ceiling diuretics =
What are the actions of loop diuretics?
blocks the chloride pump in the acending and descending loops of Henle, and the distal tubule
What time of day should a loop diuretic be taken ?
early in the day with food to avoid GI upset
Patients taking Furosemide should decrease intake of what?
Patients taking Furosemide should INcrease intake of what?
(orange juice, raisins, banans)
Site of action for Acetazolamide:
what drugs work on the Proximal tubule
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
Site of action for Thiazide diuetics:
Distal convoluted tubule
drug = Hydrochlorothiazide
Dose of Furosemide (Lasix):
40 mg - push over 1-2 minutes (2 minutes to be safe)