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Outside of the traditional clinic what are the demands society has for vets?
- Keeping things healthy
- Between: people, animals, enviro
What is an alien invasive species?
plants, animals, pathogens, and other organisms that are not native to an ecosystem and which may cause economic, or enviro harm or adversely affect human health. Impact adversely on native species
How might an alien invasive species affect animal health?
- Effects might depend on your perspective
- ie house cat: beneficial as companion and mouse and rat control, but prey on beneficial native species
Why isn't the OIE dealing with Invasive Alien species (IAS)?
- ->OIE looks at pathogens
- some guidelines on welfare
- some guidelines on IAS risk assessment but no legally binding standards
Does the OIE have a definition of animal health?
- No Problems:
- Define it as the absence of disease and specific pathogens
- animal health isn't only trade associated
- cant have health without biodiversity
What are the aspects of messy unbounded problems?
- No solutions
- longer and uncertain time scales
- priorities called into question
- uncertain but worrying greater implications
- cannot be disentangled from context
- more people involved
- don't know what needs to be known
- not sure what the problem is
What are some of the Root cause categories where the effect is the resultant problem?
- People (training, human behavior, communication, ergonomics)
- Materials (industrial hygiene, consistency, handling, transportation)
- Equipment (infrastructure, maintenance, capital expenditures)
- Methods (policies, procedures, systems)
- Environment (physical conditions, culture, weather)
- A phrase used in social planning to describe a problem that is difficult or impossible to solve because of incomplete, contradictory and changing requirements that are often difficult to recognize
- Moreover because of complex interdependencies the effort to solve one aspect of a wicked problem may reveal or create other problems
Why is animal health a wicked problem?
- What makes an animal healthy?
- Who decides when an animal is healthy?
- Who is responsible for animal health ?
- Do we judge the health of animals the same regardless of the species, their use, the country in which they reside?
- If we make one species healthy do we make another unhealthy? (Lampray- endangered by coho salmon)
Aspects of Wicked problems***
- Difficult to deine
- Interdependencies and multi-casual
- solutions can lead to unforeseen consequences
- no clear solution
- socially complex
- involve changing behavior
- sit astride organizational boundaries and responsibilities
- seemingly intractable with chronic policy failure
elaborate on wicked problem example of northern fish vs global warming
-Asked to do a risk assessment (how likely something were to happened and how bad it would be)
What are the core elements of risk?
- HOW BAD:
- -what is the hazard?
- -what can it do? (to individuals, populations, ecosystems, and economies)
- -is it irreversible and sever or mild and manageable?
- -Current vs future impacts
- HOW LIKELY:
- -is an exposure possible? -spatial and temporal cooccurence of the hazard at population risk
- -Is the exposure frequent enough and at the right dose?
- -Are there ways to prevent exposures from resulting in harm
What did the CFCH find on the northern fish issue?
- Different values- global warming and fossil fuels vs habitat loss via flooding and impacts on wildlife and traditional uses
- Knowledge gaps- how much disease is acceptable,what diseases are normal, new species
- Different expectations- statistical uncertainty (hard to prove 95% confidence) vs prove freedom from risk, risks now vs future risks
What are some barriers to solving problems?
- no way to define the risk with certainty
- no way to determine the acceptable end point
- no way to mitigate the risk once it happens
- no on had established the goal
- but building the damn was the most desired option
* aspects of decision making
- high risk consequences
- interpersonal issues
Approaches to solving wicked problems
- Mitigation- reduce the wickedness with upstream research into the real root problems people experience = success by design
- Improvisons- maintain flexibility and react quickly to feedback as you get it= success by instinct
- Shotgun- rapidly try out many solutions to find out which ones gain the most traction, and repeat=success by chance
What are some of the levels of prevention?
Patients (tertiary prevention- treat patient directly)--> selected individuals with high risk patients (secondary prevention -reduction of those at risk for disease)--> whole population and selected groups and healthy individuals (primary prevention- primary care advice as part of routine consultation)-> whole population through public health policy (primordial prevention- ie advocacy for social change)
- CORE CONCEPT #1: You can save more money by targeting risk factors and promoting health
- CORE CONCEPT #2: health is formed from social and biological relationships (ie indivs to relationships to communities to socieatal)
What does hipocrates "It is more important to know what sort of person has a disease than to know what sort of disease a person has"
*** Health is a product of how an animal (or herd or population) relates to the world around it
What adds up to a health outcome?
wider enviro influence + psycho-social influences + biological influences + time
What does "change alone is unchanging" mean?
- the lesson: nature occurs in changing continuums- the position on the continuum is affected by a wide suite of determinants (ie TIME)
- health varies
Explain why health is more than just the absence of disease
- a herd can be healthy even with some sick individuals in the herd (acceptable ongoing loss)
- and animal can be without disease but not be healthy
Health is a resource for everyday life not the objective of living
health is a capacity
What affects health?
The social-economic framework- interpersonal, organizational, community, and public policy domains, many influences
Who decides when animals are healthy?
- animals are mere property
- we assign health for them
- beings with rights vs biological entities
Does healthy = normal?
It is context specific ****
What are the 5 freedoms of welfare?
- Freedom from:
- Hunger and thirst
- discomfort pain
- injury and disease
- fear and distress
- and the freedom to:
- express normal behavior
KEY KEY CONCEPT OF ENTIRE COURSE KNOW KNOW KNOW
What are the 3 foundations of health (ie to be health what is needed?)
- 1. access to the needs of everyday living
- 2. the ability to deal with changes and stresses
- 3. the ability to meet expectations (which we as people set)
Health is a__? *********************************************************
- Capacity to meet the 3 requirements
- health is a positive concept * health is more than the absence of diease
- welfare is more than the absence of cruelty
- health is the capacity to cope with the challenges of living and doing what we expect to have done
What are the needs for everyday living?
Food, water, shelter, security
What is meant by the 2nd concept ability to cope with change and stress ?
- change with needs of daily living (physical resources)
- physiological and mental ability to cope
What is meant by the third concept ability to meet expectations
- humans assign what we expect from healthy animals
- ie dairy is based on milk production and calving rates
- this is not the same as what the animals need
Animal rights vs animal welfare
- Rights: using animals is morally wrong, not use them, we shouldn't over rule their interests, treat humanly and eliminate human causes of suffering. Animals have same rights as people
- Welfare: using animals is morally right, we can use animals to benefit us, our interest are more important, we shouldn't cause them unnecessary pain or death
What are the implications of health being a capacity?
- MEDICINE DOES NOT own health - it is a team thing
- lots to do besides diagnose and fix things
What are some health indicators?
- health status ( ie # disease cases or death)
- non medical determinants (behavior or owner resources)
- health system performance (accessibility (of vets, appropriateness, effectiveness)
- population characteristics (community, resource etc)
4 action areas for health promotion
1. provide the raw materials for health - sustain and conserve and deliver the necessary natural resources (ie raw dogfood better?), design health built enviros (ie farrow crates)
2. help people make good decisions - as a vet you are in business of helping people make good decisions, gather assess and provide info and options, provide education, help them ID and access resources to act properly
- 3. get people working together towards health goals
- 4. focus health services on health -promote health- we are well respected
Summary as health as a wicked problem
- not easily or consistently defined
- affected by peoples behaviors
- varying social views and expectations
- so single shared goal
- many factors interacting to result in health outcomes
- more than one organization and person involved
- affecting on animals health can have effects on other animals, people and or the environment