A151 Revision

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A151 Revision
2013-09-23 16:42:01
A151 World Wonders

World of Wonders (B2, C4)
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  1. Why were objects collected?
    As a result of the scientific revolution

    It was how scientists communicated knowledge

    First hand observation - prime source of knowledge
  2. Who collected them?
    • Private collectors
    • Senior church figures
    • Aristocracy
    • Scholars
    • Physicians

    Activity related to wealth and status
  3. How were they displayed?
    At first, seemingly random (The Natural History Museum of Ferrante Imperato 1599)

    Moving on to early forms of classification - objects grouped by type, with labels and research materials as seen in the Museum of Ole Worm 1655

    • Displayed with moral messages
    • Ruysch added mottos to confirm human fragility
  4. What role did God have in the observance of early collections?
    People were conditioned to ponder God's relationship

    It shaped attitudes, approaches and classifications

    Collections gave spiritual message

    Moral and religious virtues conveyed through science
  5. What function did the objects have?
    • Moral Instruction
    • Contemplate mortality and the transcience of human life

    • Aesthetic Pleasure
    • Instil wonder and awe

    • Scientific Knowledge
    • Promote awareness
    • Stimulate a closer study of natural world
    • Activities grew out of collecting
  6. The Museum of Ole Worm
    • 1655
    • Objects were classified
    • Many reference books
    • Collecting established an experimental culture
  7. About Ruysch
    • 1638-1731
    • Practitioner and physician
    • Grotesque and macabre anatomical¬†displays (sign of the times - people weren't 'put off')
    • Devised early preserving method - turning body parts into objects
    • Opera Omnia - confirmed his as a scholar
    • Conversant with high art
    • Sold his collection to Peter the Great of Russia
  8. What purpose did Ruysch's displays have?
    Moral props

    Aesthetic devices

    Scientific tools

    Antidote for atheism
  9. What were people's attitudes towards objects?
    They had a casual attitude to death

    Macabre fascination

    It broke the established boundaries between disciplines
  10. What was physio-theology?
    • Mid 17th Century
    • Fostered by outcomes of the Scientific Revolution

    Nature is an autonomous self-regulating force

    Nature is the product of an intelligent designer

    Testimony to existence of God through study of nature

    Human body = source of knowledge and vehicle for moral instruction
  11. Important dates
    1593 - Public dissections / anatomical theatre in the Netherlands

    Mid 16c - Medical knowledge expanded dramatically

    Mid 17c - New philosophical ideas challenged traditional tenets (physio-theology)

    1683 - Ashmolean museum opened to the public (ordered into sections, segregated by activity, teaching/study)

    1700's - Anatomising human bodies.  Netherlands most advanced med school

    19th c - Collections were for public display