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What is the fundamental goal of interest groups?
- Influence public policy
- Influence congress/government
- Change laws
What is the fundamental goal of political parties in the political process?
- Elect people to office
- Gain control of gov
How do interest groups support the goals of political parties?
- Organization and mobilization of the people
- Independent committees/527
- Media campaigns
- Monetary contributions/PAC donations
What is policy making discretion?
- Gov't economic policy that is not automatic or built into the system
- Used to give other agencies with better judgement and knowledge in a topic
Why does Congress give federal agencies policy making discretion in executing federal laws?
- Congreve lacks expertise/agencies have it
- Congress does not want to be blamed for bad policy
- Time consuming
- More efficient
what are 3 agencies and their area of discretion?
- EPA=clean air and water
- FCC=TV, radio, satellite, phone
- Federal reserve board=monetary policy
How can congress ensure legislative intent?
- Change law
- Legislative veto
What is reapportionment?
Relocations of the number of reps each state has in the house
Why is reapportionment beneficial to the states?
- Increases or decreases the #I of seats a state has in the house/congress (not senate)
- More representatives=more state influence
- Increases or decreases electoral votes
What is congressional redistricting?
Drawing/redrawing of house/congressional district lines
What is the purpose for gerrymandering?
- Enhance part strength/weaken opposing strength
- protect incumbents/discourage challengers
- Increase minority reps/decrease minority representations
- Punish foes/reward friends
What is cracking? Packing?
- Cracking- spreading out voters of a type among many districts to deny them a large voting block in any district
- Packing- concentrate as many voters of one type into a single electoral district to reduce influence on other districts
How has the supreme court regulated redistricting?
- Apportionment (same population)
- Lines must be connected
- Can't dilute minority voting strength
- Must be compact
- Communities of interest must be protected
What provisions of the BOR protect people who influence public policy?
How can interest groups exert power over policy?
- Grassroots movement-mobilize the people
- Lobbying in gov't insitutions- contact with policy makers to persuade
- Litigation-use courts to gain policy preferences through cases
What is an example of gov't regulations of interest groups?
- Registration of lobbyists
- limits on gifts
- Prohibits bribery
- Campaign finance laws
What's a characteristic of the merit system?
Hiring based on qualifications
How does structure contribute to beaureacratic independence?
- Precialized units
- Based on merit
How does the complexity of public policy problems contribute to independence?
- Specialized units
- Delegated authority
How can congress check the agencies?
How can the courts check agencies?
- Judicial review
- Court ruling that limit bereaucrativ practices
How do interest groups check agencies?
The first amendment
How has selective incorporation limited the power of the states?
Prevents states from denying a citizen from the rights in the BOR
How does the executive branch influence fiscal policy?
- Prez proposes/preparers the federal budget
- President signs/votes legislation
- Orb recommends budget
How does the legislative branch influence fiscal policy?
- Passes federal budget
- Congress acts on spending/taxing legislation
What does monetary policy do?
- Regulate $ supply
- Control inflation/deflation
- Adjust interest rates to regulate economy
- The cost of money
Why is federal reserve board given independence?
- Removes politics from monetary policy decision making
- FRB relies on expertise when making decisions
- FRB makes economic policies efficiently
What is the role of rules committees in legislation?
- Makes it easier or harder to pass a bill
- Make the process,more efficient
How does congress exercise oversight of the fed bureaucracy?
- Committee hearings
- New laws
How does casework affects attention to legislation?
- Diverts time,resources,and staff thus reducing memebrs' ability to focus on legislation
- Develops awareness of problems, thus focusing more time/resources related to laws
What did the voting rights act of 9165?
- Eliminated voter registration requirements: literacy tests, residency requirements
- Eliminating use of english only ballots that prevented non english speakers from voting
Adv of congress over the prez?
- Slow down prez decision making
- Laws must go through congress
What are adv of the prez over congress?
- Exec privilege, order, agreement
- Commander in chief
- Bully pulpit
- The media
what influences prez decision on who he appoints?
- Veting-narrowing down candidates
- There is a judiciary committee to recommend appointments
- What party controls the senate
- Tensorial courtesy for district courts
What the does an interest group provide for the Bureaucracy? Bureaucracy to interest groups?
- SIG-B=congressional support via lobbying
- B-SIG=low regulations, special favors
What the does an Bureaucracy provide for Congress? Congress to the Bureaucracy?
- B-C=policy choices and execution
- C-B=funding and political support
What the does an interest group provide for Congress? Congress to interest groups?
- SIG-C=electoral support
- C-SIG=legislation and oversight
What factors affect political appointment?
What factors affect confirmation of appointments?
- Hearings from judiciary committee
How does the executive branch check court cases?
- Executive enforcement