Cognition Chapter 2

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Cognition Chapter 2
2013-09-21 14:25:24

test 1
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  1. some neurotransmitters (GABA) have an _____ effect on the _____ ______ neuron
    inhibitory; post synaptic
  2. other neurotransmitters (like acetylcholine) have _____ effects on the post synaptic neuron by ...
    excitatory; making it more likely to fire
  3. the amplitude of an action potential does not vary, but the
    number of action potentials propagated per second
  4. the function of a region is determined by its _____ and _____. As such the extent to which a function can be strictly _______ is a moot point
    inputs and outputs; localized
  5. white matter projecting between different cortical regions in different hemispheres
    commisures (ex corpus callosum)
  6. white matter tracts between cortical and subcortical structures
    projection tracts
  7. brain evolution can be thought of as
    adding structures to older ones, rather than replacing older structures with newer ones
  8. the raised folds of the cortex
  9. the buried grooves of the cortex
  10. the cerebral cortex consists of two folded sheets of
    gray matter organized into two hemispheres
  11. most of the cortex contains six main cortical layers termed the
    neo cortex
  12. the lateral surface of the cortex of each hemisphere is _____ into _____ lobes. name them
    divided; four. frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
  13. three different ways in which regions of cerebral cortex may be divided
    regions divided by the pattern of gyri and sulci, regions divided by cytoarchitecture, and regions divided by function
  14. the same pattern of ____ and ____ is found in everyone, though...
    gyri and sulci. they are not all the same size and shape
  15. cytoarchitecture (and brodmans areas)
    divides the cortex into areas (approximately 52 areas) based on the distribution of cell types
  16. regions divided by function
    tends to be used for primary and motor areas
  17. surround and overhang the thalamus in the center of the brain. involved in regulating motor activity and terminating action
    basal ganglia
  18. important for relating the organism to its environment. detects and expresses emotional responses
    limbic system
  19. implicated in the detection of fearful or threatening stimuli.
  20. implicated in the detection of emotional and cognitive conflicts
    cingulate gyrus
  21. particularly important for learning and memory
  22. two main structures make up the diencephalon
    thalamus and hypothalamus
  23. main sensory relay for all senses between sense organs and the cortex
  24. specialized for different functions such as regulating body temperature, hunger, and thirst, sexual activity, and regulation of endocrine functions
  25. structures of the midbrain to consider
    superior colliculi, inferior colliculi, cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata
  26. integrate information from several senses
    superior colliculi
  27. specialized for auditory processing
    inferior colliculi
  28. the sup colliculi and inf colliculi provide a
    fast route that enables rapid orienting to stimuli before the stimulus can consciously be processed
  29. important for dexterity and smooth execution of movement by integrating motor commands with sensory feedback
  30. key link between the cerebellum and the cerebrum. receives information from visual areas to control eye and body movements
  31. regulates vital functions such as breathing, swallowing, heart rate, and the wake-sleep cycle
    medulla oblongata