cognition chapter 3

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brianklein
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236175
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cognition chapter 3
Updated:
2013-09-21 15:13:58
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cognition
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test 1
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  1. properties of the world that are manifested in cognitive systems (mental and neural representations)
    representations
  2. representations dont only concern _____ properties of the world (sounds, colors) buy also may relate to more ____ forms of knowledge ( knowledge of beliefs of other people, factual knowledge)
    physical; abstract
  3. there is unlikely a ___ relationship between a _____ construct and the response properties of _____ single neurons
    1:1; hypothetical; single
  4. measures of responsiveness of a neuron to a given stimulus in terms of action potentials per second
    single cell recordings
  5. time taken between the onset of a stimulus event and the production of a behavioral response
    reaction time
  6. event related potential (ERP) is based on measurements of different signals generated by the brain at different points on the scalp.
    this method is particularly useful for measuring the relative timing of cognitive events.
  7. function imaging methods (such as PET or fMRI) are better at
    spatial resolution rather then temporal
  8. the electrical activity (in terms of action potentials per second) of many individually recorded neurons
    multi cell recordings
  9. action potential is directly measures in the method of ____ ____ recordings. these recordings can be obtained by
    single cell; implanting a very small electrode either into the axon itself or into the membrane
  10. in this view all the information about a stimulus/ event is carried in one of the neurons (like a grandmother cell)
    local representation
  11. in this view all the information about a stimulus/event is carried in all the neurons in a given population
    fully distributed representation
  12. in this (most accurate view) a distributed representation in which a small proportion of the neurons carry information about the stimulus/event
    sparse distributed representation
  13. although sparse coding the most accurate out of the three representations...
    coding is likely to be distributed amongst a group of neurons rather than invested in single neurons
  14. informational content of a neuron may be related to the number of action potentials per second
    rate coding
  15. the synchrony of firing may be used by a population of neurons to code the same stimulus or event
    temporal coding
  16. if two regions were stimulated with a single bar of light the two regions would be s
    synchronized in their neural firing (temporal coding)
  17. to gain an EEG measure one needs to compare the voltage between two or more different sites (using a reference point). In general....
    EEG/ERP is not best equipped for detecting the location of neural activity
  18. the context of ___ changed elicited by particular stimuli and cognitive tasks. This waveform reflects ____ _____ form all parts of the brain. Some of this activity may specifically relate to the current task
    EEG
  19. basic idea is that changes in the nature or efficiency of information processing will manifest themselves in the time it takes to complete a task
    mental chronometry
  20. reaction times are faster to a stimulus if that stimulus is preceded by a stimulus meaning
    associative priming
  21. ERP component that depends on the physical properties of a stimulus
    Exogenous (also known as evoked potentials)
  22. ERP component that depends on the properties of the task (what the participant is required to do with the stimulus)
    Endogenous components
  23. exogenous components tend to be
    earlier than endogenous components
  24. the electrical potential at the scalp is known but the number, location and magnitide of the electrical sources in the brain are unknown
    inverse problem
  25. an attempt to solve the inverse problem in ERP research that involves assuming how many dipoles (regions of electrical activity) contribute to the signal recorded at the scalp.
    dipole modeling
  26. recording of magnetic signals as opposed to electrical ones
    magnetoencephalography (MEG)
  27. characteristics of MEG
    • -signal unaffected by skull, meninges
    • -poor at detecting deep dipoles
    • -more sensitive to activity at sulci
    • -millisecond temporal resolution
    • -expensive
  28. characteristics of EEG/ ERP
    • -signal affected by skull, meninges
    • -detects deep and shallow dipoles
    • -sensitive to gyri and sulci activity
    • -millisecond temporal resolution
    • -poor spatial res
    • -cheap

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