cognition chapter 3
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properties of the world that are manifested in cognitive systems (mental and neural representations)
representations dont only concern _____ properties of the world (sounds, colors) buy also may relate to more ____ forms of knowledge ( knowledge of beliefs of other people, factual knowledge)
there is unlikely a ___ relationship between a _____ construct and the response properties of _____ single neurons
1:1; hypothetical; single
measures of responsiveness of a neuron to a given stimulus in terms of action potentials per second
single cell recordings
time taken between the onset of a stimulus event and the production of a behavioral response
event related potential (ERP) is based on measurements of different signals generated by the brain at different points on the scalp.
this method is particularly useful for measuring the relative timing of cognitive events.
function imaging methods (such as PET or fMRI) are better at
spatial resolution rather then temporal
the electrical activity (in terms of action potentials per second) of many individually recorded neurons
multi cell recordings
action potential is directly measures in the method of ____ ____ recordings. these recordings can be obtained by
single cell; implanting a very small electrode either into the axon itself or into the membrane
in this view all the information about a stimulus/ event is carried in one of the neurons (like a grandmother cell)
in this view all the information about a stimulus/event is carried in all the neurons in a given population
fully distributed representation
in this (most accurate view) a distributed representation in which a small proportion of the neurons carry information about the stimulus/event
sparse distributed representation
although sparse coding the most accurate out of the three representations...
coding is likely to be distributed amongst a group of neurons rather than invested in single neurons
informational content of a neuron may be related to the number of action potentials per second
the synchrony of firing may be used by a population of neurons to code the same stimulus or event
if two regions were stimulated with a single bar of light the two regions would be s
synchronized in their neural firing (temporal coding)
to gain an EEG measure one needs to compare the voltage between two or more different sites (using a reference point). In general....
EEG/ERP is not best equipped for detecting the location of neural activity
the context of ___ changed elicited by particular stimuli and cognitive tasks. This waveform reflects ____ _____ form all parts of the brain. Some of this activity may specifically relate to the current task
basic idea is that changes in the nature or efficiency of information processing will manifest themselves in the time it takes to complete a task
reaction times are faster to a stimulus if that stimulus is preceded by a stimulus meaning
ERP component that depends on the physical properties of a stimulus
Exogenous (also known as evoked potentials)
ERP component that depends on the properties of the task (what the participant is required to do with the stimulus)
exogenous components tend to be
earlier than endogenous components
the electrical potential at the scalp is known but the number, location and magnitide of the electrical sources in the brain are unknown
an attempt to solve the inverse problem in ERP research that involves assuming how many dipoles (regions of electrical activity) contribute to the signal recorded at the scalp.
recording of magnetic signals as opposed to electrical ones
characteristics of MEG
- -signal unaffected by skull, meninges
- -poor at detecting deep dipoles
- -more sensitive to activity at sulci
- -millisecond temporal resolution
characteristics of EEG/ ERP
- -signal affected by skull, meninges
- -detects deep and shallow dipoles
- -sensitive to gyri and sulci activity
- -millisecond temporal resolution
- -poor spatial res
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