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the status of an organism functioning without any evidence of disease or disfigurement
what do all humans seek to maintain a high level of?
Since perfect health is almost nearly unachievable, what is health considered on a spectrum?
a continuum (which means there are different aspects of health)
what are the five aspects of basic human need?
- physiological needs (life sustaining - food water sleep)
- safety and security (shelter & safe living conditions)
- belongingness & affection
- esteem & self respect
- self-actualization (spiritual growth)
what 4 categories are required for learning
cognitive, effective and psychomotor, didactic skills
what is the hallmark of an excellenct radiographer?
the ability to achieve a positive diagnostic or treatment result in a timely, efficient manner whule meeting the unique needs of the individual patient
what 6 things does criticial thinking require?
- ability to:
what is "recall" in the modes of thinking section
knowledge of scientific facts that you can recall at a moments notice while with parents
what is habit" in the mode of thinking
becoming accustomed to performing a skill without deep thought b/c of repittion
developing habits that make for efficient practice of learned skills
what is inquiry in the "modes of thinking"
using the skills of recall and habit along with higher modes of thinking
to process information thoughtfully and be willing and able to recognize, explore, and challenge assumptions to make sense of complex ideas
what is creativity in the "modes of thinking"
it is used to solve individual problems and to prevent causing the patient discomfort or pain
using alternative methods of performing tasks or accomplishing a procedure that is more efficient or less traumatic
what are the two types of data collection
subjective and objective data
what is subjective data in data collection
anything that the patient says "spoken words"
ex.patient might say "i had an xray, they gave me medicine in my vein that me itch all over"
what is objective data in data collecting
anything that the radiographer observes like hearing seeing reading on patients chart, feels or smells
what method requires all levels of critical thinking
what must the radiographer do when data collection has been complete
performing the exam with quality images, patient comfort and safet and efficiency
what concept requires all modes of thinking
planning and implementation
what concept depends on the patients problems and the need for assistance to achieve the desired goal safely
implementation of the plan
what are the 3 steps in "planning and implementation"
- make the plan
- establish the goal
- and acquire patient safety during implementation
what are the evaluation questions the radiographer must think about?
**Pt’s needs met? **Any problems?**Safety maintained? **Improvements?**Skin still intact? **Use CT skills? **Did pt. experience pain?
- A shared system of beliefs, values and behavioral expectations that provide social structure in daily living.
- habits and routines, ethnicity, customs and rituals
what 2 factors play a mjor role in assessing the patient ?
culture and ethnicity
what other aspects of in cultural diversity play a role in assessing the patient
- culture - what are the customs and values of this patient that may affect my treatment of this patient
- sociological - what are the patients economic status, educational background, and family structure
- psychological - how will the patients self concept and sexual identity affect my plan of care
- physiological and biological - are there anatomical or racial aspects of this patient that may affect my plan of care? are these disease factors to consider?
what 2 factors are a part of the radiographers assessment and plan of care?
cultural and ethnic diversity
what are the patient expectations of the radiographer
- clean well groomed
- delivery of qulaity care
what major aspect has an impact on the patients health care
problems of communication
what are the skills needed to be a successful communicator
what are the 4 elements of self concept
- body image
- self esteem
what is self concept
how we see our selves (self acceptance & achivement and having a positive self concept is good)
what is self esteem?
our personal worth based on feedback from behavious in our life which is the goal of self acceptance
what can change body image
under self concept what do seem to change thoruought our lifes depending on situation, circumstances etc...
what rarely changes the deals with self concept
what is the nonverbal aspects of communication
all stimuli other than the spoken word involved in communication
what factor must the radiographer be aware of in the manner of communication upon the patient?
what must the radiographer avoid in regards to gender factors
what is paralanguage
has to do with the sounds of speed, rather than the content
what is the percentage of each verbal communication nonverbal and paralanguage
- verbal comm = 7%
- non verb comm = 55%
- paralanguage = 38%
what is a key factor in maintain a positive clinical experience
what are basic guidelines in establishing interaction with patient
- –Introducing oneself to the patient
- –Give an explanation of the exam
- –Give an explanation of what is expected of the patient and what the patient can expect from the imaging staff
what are some factors the cloud or block communication between you and the patient
- complex terminology
- understanding of english
- changing the subject
- not listening to patient
- nosy waiting room
- rapid speech
- failure to explore by questioning
what is the goal of obtaining patient history
getting necessary information to perform a safe and comfortable examination
what factors must the patient have a right to question as he or she is instructed
–A detailed description of the procedure
–A description of the purpose of the exam
Approximate amount of time to complete the exam
An explanation of any unusual equipment
Follow up care after the procedure is complete
–If the patient questions the exam, do not begin until the problem is resolved
what are all the phases of loss & grief and explain
p1 denial - experiences denial from knowledge of terminal illness, pt usually senses it before doc comes
p2 anger - pt is verified of illness, pt is angry, begins to lash out at family or HCW, feels an injustice, anger is therapeutic for patient, not to take personally on HCW
p3 bargaining - pt is a good patient, he/she follows medical advice becomes submissive, experience feelings of guilt and they may seek alternative treatments
- p4 depression - patient accepts reality of the situation, begins to mourn, pt is often quite and submissive
- Give support
- p5 acceptance - loss of interest outside world, desire to discuss grief, can last a yr or 2, attempts rehab, deals with the suffering
- HCW role = quite support relfective communication, be understanding
when was the patient self determination act was made a law
what is an advanced directive
legal documents that are given by a person while in a healthy state concerning wishes at a time of death
what are advanced directives apart of
the patients chart
what is an advanced directive that is the oldest and is rquested at the time of the death
- living will
- usually happens when there are no more measures to prolong life and no chance of recovery
what is the DNR or No Code
do not resuscitate - means that no CPR (chest compressions, cardiac drugs, or placement of a breathing tube) will be performed
it is part of the legal document that staes no CPR or other life saving measures are implented if the need may arise
what is the DPOA
dual power of attorney is used when the patient authorizes another to carry out his/her wishes
what is the DNI and Full code
Do not intubate order means that chest compressions and cardiac drugs may be used, but no breathing tube will be placed
CPR (code blue)
what is stress
it has various forms but it affects a perons ability to maintain his or her health status at a high level
what are basic needs
what are the higher modes of thinking
and the lower
- inquiry and creativity
- recall and habit
what are the problem solving requirements
- data collection
- data analysis
where are theoretical concepts learned from?
they are learned and recalled from the classroom