Chapter 3 language disorders

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jacwill
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Chapter 3 language disorders
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2013-09-21 15:22:27
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impact second language acquisition bilingualism children developing
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454 language disorders
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  1. Krashen's Comprehensible Input
    • CLD students must have comprehensible input in order to be successful
    • comprehensible input with CLD children
    •    -occurs naturally, opprotunities to practice in natural everyday situations
    •        -ie when a class is going on a field trip, the class talks about the ocean and teacher asks what lives in ocean
    •    -avaliable concrete referents (visual and hands on materials)
    •    -input is interesting, meaningful and relevant to the learner
    •    -input isn't grammatically sequenced it occurs naturally
    •    -sufficient quantities of the input to ensure learning
  2. what does Krashen's comprehensible input suppose the subject can do?
    • acquire language by understanding messages
    • focus is on the meaning of what is heard rather than the grammatical form - learner must be active in his/her environment in order to learn
  3. Models of Language Proficiency Cummins
    SUP
    • Separate Underlying Proficiency (SUP)
    •     -proficiency in L1 is viewed entirely separately from prof in l2, therefore teaching in l2 doesn't matter
  4. Models of Language Proficiency Cummins CUP
    • Common Underlying Proficiency
    •     -Supports philosophy of one language only
    •     -Poor English models= poor English speakers
    •     -truth: benefit from linguistically rich proficient lang models (usually primary lang) rahter than poor second lang model
  5. Models of Language Proficiency Cummins
    CUP
    What happens if child is proficient in l1?
    • S/he acquires l2 more rapidly
    • high level of calp leads to high levels of 
    •     -acquisition of second lang
    •     -academic success
  6. Problems with SUP
    • No evidence to support the model
    • topping l1 abruptly can cause trauma for child and parents
    • cummins believes the cup model is an alternative to the sup model
    • studies demonstrate strong literacy skills in l1 translate into strong literacy skills in l2
    • students who don't read in l1 have more difficulty reading in English
  7. what does building strong foundation in l1 assist the child with?
    • in learning l2
    • studies show that children with first-lang literacy skills perform better in the second lang
  8. what happens if there is a poor foundation?
    swiss cheese, ladder with missing rung
  9. what does research show in terms of monolingual and bilingual children
    Research demonstrates that bilingual students below age 6 tend to outperform monolingual children on metalinguistic awareness related to reading
  10. language difference v language disorder
    thomas and collier
    • TD English speaker gains 10 months academic growth in 10 months
    • CLD child must out gain native speakers, or in order to perform equal to native speakers, they must demonstrate 9 years growth in 6 years
  11. simultaneous lang acquistion
    • exposure to both langs before the age of 3 (usually both from birth)
    • usually have common proficiency in both
  12. sequential lang acquisition
    learn l1 as infant and l2 later in childhood
  13. semilingualism or limited bilingualism
    • children not competent in either lang
    • genesse says: the term is not accurate becaus the students are probably in a transitional period
    •     -be careful not to misdiagnose as sli
    • research conflicts on when to expose child to l2 if not exposed at birth
    • usually recommend age 6 after basic lang skills in l1 developed
  14. additive bilingualism
    • achievement of high levels of proficiency in the first and second langs
    • l1 is nurtured encouraged and continues to grow
    • achieves high level of profi in l2 becoming bilingual
  15. Subtractive bilingualism
    • l1 is replaced by l2
    • acquisiton of l2 (majority lang)comes at cost of l1 (minority lang)
    • gradually loses l1 and becomes monolingual in english or the majority lang
    • limited development of english could limit cognitive and linguistic skills 
    • often struggle at school
    • may be misidentified as sli
  16. BICS
    • Basic interpersonal communication skills
    • BICS=basic communication skills for greeting, simple social encounters
    • ability to communicate with adults and peers at home, play, market, dinner etc
    • cognitively undemanding lang that can be more automatic
    • provides situational sufficiency to interact effectively using persuasion, basic humor and insults
    •    -vocab=2500 words
    •    -phonology-ability to produce individual sounds
    •    -morphology-ability to build simple words
    •    -syntax-ability to build and produce simple sentences using correct grammatical structures
  17. How long does it take CLD student to learn BICS?
    2-3 years to develop the skills equal to native speakers (2 years has expanded to 3 as more studies done)
  18. CALP
    • Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency 
    • Cognitively demanding, context reduced forms of communication 
    • 5-7 years to develop competency equal to native speakers in literacy and speaking
    •     -enriched environments more likely to develop in 5 years
    •     -academic and higher functioning skills 
    •     -lang abiltiy required for formal learning and literacy activities
  19. What sort of high level skills are used in CALP
    • application-blending sounds into words
    • analysis-character analysis
    • synthesis-predicting outcomes
    • evaluation-forming opinions on content
  20. CALP
    context embedded communication
    • participants can actively negotiate meaning
    • have a shared reality
    • typically found outside the classroom in everyday life
    • the language is supported by meaningful situational cues and paralinguistic gestures
    • gestures and facial expressions facilitate communication
  21. CALP
    Context-reduced communication
    • does not rely on reality
    • may rely only on linguistic cues for meaning
    • proficiency in context reduced communication requires ability to make complex meaning clear by only using lang (no visuals)
    • genesee says: success requires ability to read about or express verbally or in writing, abstract ideas without past experience or contextual cues
  22. CALP
    Cognitively undemanding tasks
    • don't require thinking, are automatic
    • greetings
    • name, social, 
    • abc's 
    • counting
  23. CALP
    How are student's skills evaluated
    • How much info must a student process simultaneously or in close succession
    • presence/absence of visual cues
    • experience with l2
    • formal assessment
    •    -make sure apporpriate tests are used
    •    -ensure they have context embedded and cognitively undemanding situations
    •    -l1 profi and experience (subtractive bilingualism?)
  24. affective variables in second language acquisition
    • personality: will impact learning of l2 by how quickly and how well it is learned
    • self esteem (to maximise learning)
    •    -need positive attitude
    •    -positive self concept
    •    -if l1 and culture are rejected, may impact learning rate and competency

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