Chapter 3 language disorders

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  1. Krashen's Comprehensible Input
    • CLD students must have comprehensible input in order to be successful
    • comprehensible input with CLD children
    •    -occurs naturally, opprotunities to practice in natural everyday situations
    •        -ie when a class is going on a field trip, the class talks about the ocean and teacher asks what lives in ocean
    •    -avaliable concrete referents (visual and hands on materials)
    •    -input is interesting, meaningful and relevant to the learner
    •    -input isn't grammatically sequenced it occurs naturally
    •    -sufficient quantities of the input to ensure learning
  2. what does Krashen's comprehensible input suppose the subject can do?
    • acquire language by understanding messages
    • focus is on the meaning of what is heard rather than the grammatical form - learner must be active in his/her environment in order to learn
  3. Models of Language Proficiency Cummins
    • Separate Underlying Proficiency (SUP)
    •     -proficiency in L1 is viewed entirely separately from prof in l2, therefore teaching in l2 doesn't matter
  4. Models of Language Proficiency Cummins CUP
    • Common Underlying Proficiency
    •     -Supports philosophy of one language only
    •     -Poor English models= poor English speakers
    •     -truth: benefit from linguistically rich proficient lang models (usually primary lang) rahter than poor second lang model
  5. Models of Language Proficiency Cummins
    What happens if child is proficient in l1?
    • S/he acquires l2 more rapidly
    • high level of calp leads to high levels of 
    •     -acquisition of second lang
    •     -academic success
  6. Problems with SUP
    • No evidence to support the model
    • topping l1 abruptly can cause trauma for child and parents
    • cummins believes the cup model is an alternative to the sup model
    • studies demonstrate strong literacy skills in l1 translate into strong literacy skills in l2
    • students who don't read in l1 have more difficulty reading in English
  7. what does building strong foundation in l1 assist the child with?
    • in learning l2
    • studies show that children with first-lang literacy skills perform better in the second lang
  8. what happens if there is a poor foundation?
    swiss cheese, ladder with missing rung
  9. what does research show in terms of monolingual and bilingual children
    Research demonstrates that bilingual students below age 6 tend to outperform monolingual children on metalinguistic awareness related to reading
  10. language difference v language disorder
    thomas and collier
    • TD English speaker gains 10 months academic growth in 10 months
    • CLD child must out gain native speakers, or in order to perform equal to native speakers, they must demonstrate 9 years growth in 6 years
  11. simultaneous lang acquistion
    • exposure to both langs before the age of 3 (usually both from birth)
    • usually have common proficiency in both
  12. sequential lang acquisition
    learn l1 as infant and l2 later in childhood
  13. semilingualism or limited bilingualism
    • children not competent in either lang
    • genesse says: the term is not accurate becaus the students are probably in a transitional period
    •     -be careful not to misdiagnose as sli
    • research conflicts on when to expose child to l2 if not exposed at birth
    • usually recommend age 6 after basic lang skills in l1 developed
  14. additive bilingualism
    • achievement of high levels of proficiency in the first and second langs
    • l1 is nurtured encouraged and continues to grow
    • achieves high level of profi in l2 becoming bilingual
  15. Subtractive bilingualism
    • l1 is replaced by l2
    • acquisiton of l2 (majority lang)comes at cost of l1 (minority lang)
    • gradually loses l1 and becomes monolingual in english or the majority lang
    • limited development of english could limit cognitive and linguistic skills 
    • often struggle at school
    • may be misidentified as sli
  16. BICS
    • Basic interpersonal communication skills
    • BICS=basic communication skills for greeting, simple social encounters
    • ability to communicate with adults and peers at home, play, market, dinner etc
    • cognitively undemanding lang that can be more automatic
    • provides situational sufficiency to interact effectively using persuasion, basic humor and insults
    •    -vocab=2500 words
    •    -phonology-ability to produce individual sounds
    •    -morphology-ability to build simple words
    •    -syntax-ability to build and produce simple sentences using correct grammatical structures
  17. How long does it take CLD student to learn BICS?
    2-3 years to develop the skills equal to native speakers (2 years has expanded to 3 as more studies done)
  18. CALP
    • Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency 
    • Cognitively demanding, context reduced forms of communication 
    • 5-7 years to develop competency equal to native speakers in literacy and speaking
    •     -enriched environments more likely to develop in 5 years
    •     -academic and higher functioning skills 
    •     -lang abiltiy required for formal learning and literacy activities
  19. What sort of high level skills are used in CALP
    • application-blending sounds into words
    • analysis-character analysis
    • synthesis-predicting outcomes
    • evaluation-forming opinions on content
  20. CALP
    context embedded communication
    • participants can actively negotiate meaning
    • have a shared reality
    • typically found outside the classroom in everyday life
    • the language is supported by meaningful situational cues and paralinguistic gestures
    • gestures and facial expressions facilitate communication
  21. CALP
    Context-reduced communication
    • does not rely on reality
    • may rely only on linguistic cues for meaning
    • proficiency in context reduced communication requires ability to make complex meaning clear by only using lang (no visuals)
    • genesee says: success requires ability to read about or express verbally or in writing, abstract ideas without past experience or contextual cues
  22. CALP
    Cognitively undemanding tasks
    • don't require thinking, are automatic
    • greetings
    • name, social, 
    • abc's 
    • counting
  23. CALP
    How are student's skills evaluated
    • How much info must a student process simultaneously or in close succession
    • presence/absence of visual cues
    • experience with l2
    • formal assessment
    •    -make sure apporpriate tests are used
    •    -ensure they have context embedded and cognitively undemanding situations
    •    -l1 profi and experience (subtractive bilingualism?)
  24. affective variables in second language acquisition
    • personality: will impact learning of l2 by how quickly and how well it is learned
    • self esteem (to maximise learning)
    •    -need positive attitude
    •    -positive self concept
    •    -if l1 and culture are rejected, may impact learning rate and competency
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Chapter 3 language disorders
2013-09-21 19:22:27
impact second language acquisition bilingualism children developing

454 language disorders
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