Chapter 4 language disorders

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Chapter 4 language disorders
2013-09-21 16:17:29
factors impacting lang development culturally linguistically diverse children

454 language disorders
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  1. what is the definition of culture
    values, traditions, social and political relationships, and a world created, shared and transformed by a group of people bound together by a common history, geographic location and lang, social class, religion or other shared identity
  2. what are the variables impacting beharior
    • langs spoken at home (only l1?)
    • parent's educational level
    • country of birth for parents and child
    • length of residence in US
    • SES 
    • Student's age and gender (younger they are when they start school the more likely they stay in school)
    • generation number (first born in US)
    • neighborhood and peer group (who are your lang models)
    • degree of acculturation into American life (how Americanized one becomes)
  3. ways to increase cultural competence
    • 1. evaluate your own values and assumptions
    • 2. read about the family's linguistic and cultural background for the child's culture
    • 3. used local individuals from cultural community as interpreters and informants
    •    -will help to determine difference v disorder
    • 4. consider value system of family and community when setting intervention goals
    • 5.  Ask students, family's and interpreters to share aspects of culture with you
  4. what are some considerations when working with immigrants and refugees
    • generational poverty=at least two generations of the family have been in poverty and perhaps on welfare
    • situational poverty=occurs due to a circumstance, usually shorter time
  5. what do poor children experience more of than non-poor children?
    • regardless of race or ethnicity, poor children are much more likely than non-poor children to suffer developmental delay and damage
    • more likely to drop out of high school
    • more likely to give birth during teen years
  6. 4 levels of acculturation
    • traditional=don't adapt to new culture and continue to adhere to own values, practices
    • acculturated=adapt to new culture, but lose some parameters of their culture of origin - hardest to deal with
    • marginal=adapts minimally ot either the new culture or the culture of origin
    • bicultural=retain strong ties with culture of origin and successfully adapt to the new culture too
  7. how to work with students who speak African American English (AAE)
    • unique to the US
    • believed to be dialect of mainstream american english
    • influenced by gender, age ses, geographic region
    •     -more dialectal forms used by low income homes
    •     -boys use more than girls
    • some use AAE with peers and standard english elsewhere
  8. how to work with students who speak African American English (AAE)
    • must take into consideration grammar, syntax and articulation patterns of AAE
    • cultural differences should be considered whenever assessing
    •     -what experiences the child has had
    •     -has the child had appropriate role models
    •     -lang models
  9. how to work with students who speak African American English (AAE)
    characteristics of communication
    • turn taking may not be observed
    • rituals such as call and response can occur in class
    •      -quiet when with unfamiliar adults
    • may make minimal eye contact
    • differing narratives
    •      -including personl evaluations of the character in narrative 
    •      -tell stories with topic associating style (lack of detail) presupposes shared knowledge therefore detail not needed
  10. how to work with students who speak asian influenced english
    • some asian langs are tonal (chinese, mandarin)
    • tones reflect meaning changes
    • tonemes-tones that reflect meaning
    • some asian langs are almost exclusively monosyllabic (laotian, vietnamese, chinese)
    •     -multisyllabic words will be difficult for students to learn
    • some langs lack gender pronouns, inflectional markers (plurals, ed)
  11. how to work with students who speak asian influenced english
    characteristics of communication
    • some asian countries share similar characteristics
    • some children taught to say "yes" regardless 
    • philippines: weak to say "no" - listener must figure out that yes means no
    • not taught to make eye contact
    • males often allowed to do what they wish until age 6
    • rote memorization encouraged to please the authority figures
  12. what are some + and - to the situation of culturally diverse students?
    • what may seem to be a very workable solution from a middle-class point of view may be virtually impossible give the resources available to those in poverty
    • resources include:
    •     financial
    •     emotional
    •     metal
    •     spiritual
    •     physical
    •     relationships/role models
    •     knowledge of hidden rules (say yes when mean no
  13. The learning environment in terms of making student comfortable
    • school climate
    • to assist the student become comfortable in the learning environment August and Hakuta recommend:
    •     -respect for student's cultural and linguistic background
    •     -strong and supportive leadership
    •     -collaboration among staff
    •     -cooperation-collaboration with parents/families
    •     -on-going assessment of student's progress
  14. to facilitate learning, use
    • in school setting
    • learning centers for different subjects to allow learning at their own rate
    • use authentic literature
    • use interactive journals
    • use "interlocking" activities to reinforce academic subjects
  15. the learning environment in terms of learning
    • allow time for individual and collaborative work
    • focus on meaning  (not just the parts)
    • speak slower
    • use adequate pauses
    • use names of students
    • avoid idiomatic expressions
    • emphasize key words
    • use gestures to get meaning across
    • allow ample learning and response time
    • allow ample time and opportunities to work with peers/buddies