Equine Management - Week 4
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After clotted blood has been spun, what is the clear yellow fluid at the top?
once an animal is born, what tissue in the bone marrow is responsible for RBC formation?
what is hematopoiesis?
formation of all parts of the blood
how are dead RBCs removed?
broken down by spleen and lymph nodes
what is another name for neutrophils?
what is contained within the basophilic granules?
histamine and heparin
what is the function of histamine?
initiates inflammation and allergic reactions
what is the function of heparin?
lymphocytes make up the majority of agranulocytes, but it is the only WBC that does not have _____________?
what are the three types of lymphocytes involved in the immune system?
- 1. T lymphocytes
- 2. B lymphocytes
- 3. Natural Killer (NK)
what is a natural killer cell?
defense against some cancers and viruses
what is the term for a decrease in the number of platelets which results in a clotting issue?
In the bone marrow, what is responsible for making platelets?
what is DIC?
disseminated intravascular coagulation
what is the result of DIC?
- increases coagulation of the blood
- depletes the clotting factors and platelets
- platelets congregate in one area of the body
- can be fatal
what is another name for excess fluid?
what are the four functions of the lymphatic system?
- 1. remove extra fluid
- 2. remove waste from tissues
- 3. filters foreign debris and bacteria from lymph
- 4. transport large proteins and lipids to the blood from the tissues
where is lymph fluid located?
what is the primary drainage duct for lymph?
that are the three area of the lymph node?
- 1. cortex
- 2. paracortex
- 3. medulla
what is contained in the outer cortex?
what is contained in the paracortex?
what is function of the medulla for the lymph node?
what lymph nodes are palpable in a horse?
submandibular lymph nodes
what is term for enlarged or swollen lymph nodes?
what attaches the spleen to the left kidney?
what attaches the spleen to the stomach?
what are the four functions of the spleen?
- 1. store blood
- 2. remove foreign particles from the blood
- 3. remove old RBCs
- 4. produce lymphocytes
what are the two types of tissue that comprise the spleen?
what is the function of the red pulp tissue in the spleen?
store and remove RBCs
what is the function of the white pulp tissue in the spleen?
what are the four chambers of the heart?
- 1. right atrium
- 2. left atrium
- 3. right ventricle
- 4. left ventricle
what are the two functions of the atria?
- 1. receive and hold blood
- 2. SA node (pacemaker)
what is the function of the ventricles?
pump blood away from the heart
what are the three layers of the heart?
- 1. epicardium
- 2. myocardium
- 3. endocardium
what is the function of the myocardium?
what is the function of the endocardium?
form the heart valves
what holds the fluid between the heart layers?
what does AV stand for?
what are the two AV valves?
what attaches the AV valves to the heart?
what controls the blood flow out of the ventricles?
what are the two semilunar valves?
what is the name for muscle cells in the heart?
what connects the myocytes?
what controls changes in the heart rate?
autonomic nervous system
where does the electrical activity of the heart originate?
where is the SA node located?
wall of the right atrium
where are the nerve impulses from the AV node conducted to?
Bundle of His
where are the nerve impulses from the Bundle of His conducted to?
what is stroke volume?
the volume of blood ejected by the ventricles in one beat
what is cardiac output?
volume of blood ejected by the heart in one minute
what is the formula for calculating cardiac output?
stroke volume multiplied by the heart rate
what is the normal heart rate for a horse?
what is the outer layer of blood vessel?
what is the middle layer of a blood vessel?
what types of tissue comprise the tunica media?
- smooth muscle
- elastic tissue
what is the innermost layer of a blood vessel?
arteries carry oxygenated blood with one exception - what is it?
veins carry deoxygenated blood with one exception - what is it?
what are the two divisions of the circulatory system?
- 1. pulmonary circulation
- 2. systemic circulation
which artery carries deoxygenated blood into the heart?
what is the function of the alar cartilage?
support for the nares
what is the length of the nasal cavity?
nostrils to the nasopharynx
what is another name for the turbinate bones?
what covers the conchae?
highly vascularized mucosa
what are the three divisions of the conchae?
- 1. dorsal
- 2. middle
- 3. ventral meatuses
what is the purpose of the ventral meatus?
widest of the turbinate bones used for nasogastric tubes
how many pairs of sinuses in a horse?
which sinuses are most often involved with disease?
- cranial maxillary
- caudal maxillary
what is created when the seven pairs of sinuses are combined?
what separates the nasopharynx and the oropharynx?
what is created with the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and the soft palate?
what lines the nasopharynx?
pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells
what lines the oropharynx and the pharynx?
stratified simple squamous epithellium
what support the larynx?
what does the epiglottis cover?
what is another name for lung tissue?
what is covered by the parietal pleura?
- chest wall
what is covered by the visceral pleura?
what is the most important inspiratory muscle in a horse?
what is oxidative metabolism?
oxygen is transported by the blood to the tissues to be used with glucose to create energy
what type of teeth do horses have?
what is the dentine of the tooth?
mineralized tissue in the tooth
what encases the root of a tooth?
what is the name that refers to the first premolar tooth on the maxilla?
when do temporary incisors typically erupt?
- I1 - 8 days
- I2 - 8 weeks
- I3 - 8 months
when do permanent incisors erput?
- I1 - 2.5 years
- I2 - 3.5 years
- I3 - 4.5 years
when do permanent premolars erupt?
- P2 - 2.5 years
- P3 - 3 years
- P4 - 5 years
when do permanent molars erupt?
- M1 - 1 year
- M2 - 2 years
- M3 - 3.5 years
what is exposed when the enamel infolds on itself on the occlusal surface of the incisor?
what is the term for the exposed cement as the horse ages?
what use is the cup?
aging the horse
when do cups appear on the lower incisors?
- I1 - 6 years
- I2 - 7 years
- I3 - 8 years
when do cups appear on the upper incisors?
- I1 - 7 years
- I2 - 8 years
- I3 - 9 years
at what age should a horse have all the permanent teeth?
where is the "hook" formed?
upper I3 on the distal side
what is the term for the "hook" that appears on the upper I3?
7 year notch
at what age does the 7 year notch appear?
at what age does the 7 year notch disappear?
at what age is the Galvayne's groove appear?
at what age is the Galvayne's groove about halfway?
at what age is the Galvayne's groove complete?
at what age does the Galvayne's groove disappear about halfway?
at what age does the Galvayne's groove completely recede?
where does the Galvayne's groove appear?
at what age do all of the cups disappear?
as the horse ages, what shape does the mouth form?
what are "points" on premolars and molars?
what is the term for equine dentistry?
what happens during floating?
the points are filed down from the premolars and molars
what are the four paired salivary glands?
- 1. parotid
- 2. mandibular
- 3. sublingual
- 4. buccal
what is another term for swallowing?
what side of the body is the location for the stomach?
what is the function of somatotstatin?
decrease acid secretion
what is the function of parietal cells?
secrete hydrochloric acid
what is the function of zymogen cells?
what is the function of G cells?
what is the function of gastrin?
stimulate acid secretion for digestion
what is the function of D cells?
how long is an equine small intestine?
what are the three divisions of the small intestine?
- 1. duodenum
- 2. jejunum
- 3. illium
what surrounds the villi of the intestines?
crypts of Lieberkuhn
what is the function of the crypts of Lieberkuhn?
secrete large amounts of fluid into the lumen of the small intestine
what is broken down by the digestive enzymes released from the pancreas?
what organ secrets bile salts?
what is the shortest section of the small intestine?
what are the two division of the large intestine?
what are the three division of the colon?
- 1. large ascending colon
- 2. transverse colon
- 3. small descending colon
what plant product is microbially digested in the cecum and colon?
what does VFA stand for?
volatile fatty acids
what is between the ilium and the cecum?
how much can the cecum hold?
what are the three divisions of the cecum?
what are the two primary functions of the cecum?
- 1. absorb water and electrolytes
- 2. create an environment for microbial digestion
what is the common site for feed impactions in the colon?
what is the function of the small colon?
turn ingesta from the transverse colon into fecal balls by completing water absorption
what are the three functions of the nervous system?
- 1. sensory
- 2. integrative
- 3. motor
what are the three divisions of the nervous system?
- 1. central nervous system
- 2. peripheral nervous system
- 3. autonomic nervous system
what are the three items that comprise each neuron?
- 1. soma
- 2. axon
- 3. dendrite
where to axons carry nerve impulses?
away from the neuron to effector organs
what is the term for nervous tissue with myelinated axons?
what is the term for nervous tissue with non-myelinated axons?
what part of the nervous system is comprised of grey matter?
what are the two functions of glial cells?
what is NOT a function of glial cells?
transmit nerve impulses
what is the term for specialized glial cells of the brain and spinal cord?
what is the term for glial cells that constitute the myelin?
what are three signs of upper motor neuron disease?
- 1. spasticity
- 2. hypermetria
- 3. exaggerated reflexes
what is a ganglion?
group of nerve cells where synapses occur enabling transmission
what are three signs for lower motor neuron disease?
- 1. weakness
- 2. trembling
- 3. neurogenic atrophy
what surrounds the brain and the spinal cord?
what are the three layers of the meninges?
- 1. dura mater
- 2. arachnoid mater
- 3. pia mater
where is the cerebrospinal fluid located?
which layer of the meninges actually covers the brain and spinal cord?
what is provided to the brain and spinal cord from the blood of the meninges?
oxygen and nutrients
what are the two locations for retrieving CSF for a centesis?
- 1. lumbosacral space
- 2. atlanto occipital space
what are the three divisions of the brain?
- 1. forebrain (prosencephalon)
- 2. midbrain (mesencephalon)
- 3. hindbrain (rhomboencephalon)
what is the term for the folds of the brain?
what three sections are included in the hindbrain?
- 1. cerebellum
- 2. pons
- 3. medulla oblongata
what is an example of a simple spinal reflex?
what is the panniculus reflex?
twitch caused by a pinch that sends an impulse to the spinal cord which sends a motor impulse to the cutaneous trunci muscle
what are the two division of the autonomic nervous system?
- 1. sympathetic
- 2. parasympathetic
what is an alternate name for the autonomic nervous system?
visceral nervous system
what is the chemical messenger of the sympathetic nervous system?
what is the chemical messenger of the parasympathetic nervous system?
which blood vessel carries oxygenated blood into the kidney?
what blood vessel carries deoxygenated blood out of the kidney?
what type of tissue comprises the urinary bladder? why?
transitional - allows the bladder to stretch as the volume increase
what organ does the equine NOT have?
what is produced by hepatocytes?
what is contained in bile?
- bile acids
what vitamins are stored in the liver?
- vitamin A
- vitamin D
- vitamin E
- vitamin K
what is the term for an enlarged liver?
what is secreted from the endocrine glands into systemic circulation?
what are the five major parts of the endocrine system?
- 1. pituitary gland
- 2. adrenal gland
- 3. thyroid gland
- 4. parathyroid gland
- 5. pancreas
what is another name for the pituitary gland?
what is the most important gland of the endocrine system?
where is the pituitary gland located?
what are the three regions of the pituitary gland?
- 1. anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
- 2. posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)
- 3. pars intermedia (between anterior and posterior)
what type of hormone is produced by the anterior pituitary?
what is the function of trophic hormones?
stimulate growth of the target organ
what are two trophic hormones?
- 1. GH (Growth Hormone)/somatotropin
- 2. ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic hormone)
what is the function of the posterior pituitary gland?
which hormones are stored in the posterior pituitary gland?
- antidiuretic homone (vasopressin)
what is the main issue in equine Cushing's disease?
pars intermedia over produce hormones
what regulates pituitary gland hormones?
what are the two main parts of each adrenal gland?
- 1. outer cortex
- 2. inner medulla
what is the function of the outer cortex of the adrenal gland?
produce steroid hormones
what is the function of the inner medulla of the adrenal gland?
produce catecholamine hormones
what are two examples of catecholamine hormones?
- 1. epinephrine
- 2. norepinephrine
what are the three divisions of the adrenal cortex?
- 1. zona glomerulosa
- 2. zona fasciculata
- 3. zona reticularis
which type of hormones is produced by the zona glomerulosa?
what is an example of a mineral corticoid?
which type of hormones is produced by the zona fasciculata?
which type of hormones is produced by the zona reticularis?
what is regulated by calcitonin?
blood calcium levels
what is regulated by parathyroid hormone?
blood calcium levels
blood calcium levels are regulated by two hormones - calcitonin and parathyroid hormone. what is the difference between the two?
- calcitonin - released when too much calcium
- parathyroid hormone - released when not enough calcium
what composes pancreatic tissue?
Islets of Langerhans
what is special about the pancreas?
both exocrine and endocrine gland
what are the two digestive enzymes produced by the exocrine pancreas?
what three cell types make up the endocrine pancreas?
- 1. beta cells
- 2. alpha cells
- 3. delta cells
what are the two primary hormones produced by the endocrine pancreas?
what is the function of insulin and glucagon?
work together to regulate blood glucose levels
what is released by beta cells?
what is released by alpha cells?
what is released by delta cells?
what is the function of glucagon?
blood glucose is low, stimulates glucose production released by the liver
what is the function of somatostatin?
inhibit secretion of both insulin and glucagon
what are the three layers of the skin?
- 1. epidermis
- 2. dermis
- 3. hypodermis
what are the six functions of the skin?
- 1. protection
- 2. thermoregulation
- 3. sensation
- 4. contain exocrine glands
- 5. Vitamin D production
- 6. immune function
horses have the largest number of what glands?
what are the three layers of the eye?
- 1. sclera
- 2. uvea
- 3. retina
what is a another name for the third eyelid?
what is mydriasis?
what is myosis?
what is contained within the retina that is vital for vision?
- 1. rod photoreceptors
- 2. cone photoreceptors
what is the function of rod photoreceptors?
black, darkness and white
what is the function of cone photoreceptors?
what are the common names for the three bones in the middle ear?
- 1. hammer
- 2. anvil
- 3. stirrup
what are the scientific names for the three bones in the middle ear?
- 1. maelleus
- 2. incus
- 3. stape
what are the ossicles?
three bones in the middle ear
what is the function of the ossicles?
transfer and amplify sound vibrations from the eardrum through the inner ear
what is the function of the eustachian tube?
pressure equilibrium between the external and middle ear
what are the two divisions of the skeleton?
what constitutes the axial skeleton?
- skull, vertebrae, ribs, tail
- top half of the body (head to tail)
what constitutes the appendicular skeleton?
structural support - forelimbs and hindlimbs
what is the vertebral formula of the horse?
what are the splint bones?
second and fourth metacarpal/metatarsal bones
what are the three constituents of bone?
- 1. osteoblasts
- 2. osteocytes
- 3. osteoclasts
what is the function of osteoblasts?
deposit osteoid on the the bone surface
what is the function of osteoclasts?
what are the two types of bone?
what is contained in cancellous bone to make blood cells?
hematopoietic bone marrow
what is the term for free motion joints?
what are the three groups of joints?
- 1. synovial
- 2. cartilaginous
- 3. fibrous
what is an example of a fibrous joint?
sutures of the skull
what can be caused by damage to any part of the synovial joint?
- degenerative joint disease
what are the three classifications of muscle?
- 1. smooth
- 2. cardia
- 3. skeletal
what are the thick and thin filaments of the myofibrils of muscle?
- myosin - thick
- actin - thin
what is the function of tendons?
connect muscle to bones
what is the function of ligaments?
connect bones to bones
what are tendons and ligaments primary made of?
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